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Table 1 Cumulative incident risk of CIN3+ and HPV16 positivity frequency by the numbers of high-methylation sites of HPV 16

From: Risk stratification of HPV 16 DNA methylation combined with E6 oncoprotein in cervical cancer screening: a 10-year prospective cohort study

HPV gene Numbers of sites*Numbers of individual10-year cumulative CIN3+HPV16 positivity frequency#
Incidence rateHR (95%CI)p§OnceTwiceThree timesp
L10267.7 (2.1, 24.1)1 (Ref.)< 0.00176.9 (58.0, 89.0)19.2 (8.5, 37.9)3.8 (0.7, 18.9)< 0.001
12821.4 (10.2, 39.5)3.3 (0.7, 16.5) 40.0 (23.4, 59.3)20.0 (8.9, 39.1)40.0 (23.4, 59.3) 
2–3875.0 (40.9, 92.9)14.6 (2.9, 74.6) 25.0 (7.1, 59.1)0 (0, 32.4)75.0 (40.9, 92.9) 
LCR0296.9 (1.9, 22.0)1 (Ref.)0.00155.2 (37.6, 71.6)20.7 (9.8, 38.4)24.1 (12.2, 42.1)0.296
12123.8 (10.6, 45.1)3.9 (0.8, 20.2) 63.2 (41.0, 80.9)10.5 (2.9, 31.4)26.3 (11.8, 48.8) 
2–31258.3 (32.0, 80.7)12.8 (2.6, 62.5) 36.4 (15.2, 64.6)18.2 (5.1, 47.7)45.5 (21.3, 72.0) 
L1+LCR0140 (0, 21.5)--- 71.4 (45.4, 88.3)21.4 (7.6, 47.6)7.1 (1.3, 31.5)0.004
1229.1 (2.5, 27.8)1 (Ref.)< 0.00159.1 (38.7, 76.7)18.2 (7.3, 38.5)22.7 (10.1, 43.4) 
21428.6 (11.7, 54.7)3.7 (0.7, 20.0) 50.0 (25.4, 74.6)16.7 (4.7, 44.8)33.3 (13.8, 60.9) 
3–61266.7 (39.1,86.2)12.0 (2.5,57.7) 27.3 (9.7,56.6)9.1 (1.6,37.7)63.6 (35.4,84.8) 
  1. HPV human papillomavirus, L1 Late gene 1, LCR long control region, CIN3+ cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse (CIN3+), HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. *Number of high methylation sites out of six significant sites of HPV 16: CpG 5602, 6650 and 7034 in L1 gene and 7461, 31 and 37 in LCR gene
  3. #HPV genotyping test was conducted on all HC2 positive samples to determine HPV 16 positivity frequency in three visits of follow-up, i.e., in 2005, 2010, and 2014. Therefore, HPV16 positivity frequency may be once, twice, and three times in three tests during 2005–2014
  4. §p value for log-rank test; p value for chi-square test