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Table 1 Characteristics of the subjects with Illumina EPIC array data

From: DNA methylation age calculators reveal association with diabetic neuropathy in type 1 diabetes

 Primary cohort Conventional group
N = 124
Mean (SD)/N (%)
Primary cohort Intensive group
N = 125
Mean (SD)/N (%)
Secondary cohort Conventional group
N = 125
Mean (SD)/N (%)
Secondary cohort Intensive group
N = 125
Mean (SD)/N (%)
Total
N = 499
Mean (SD)/N (%)
Sex (male)73 (58.9%)60 (48.0%)65 (52.0%)73 (58.4%)271 (54.3%)
Stimulated C-peptide at DCCT eligibility (pmol/ml)0.18 (0.14)0.17 (0.14)0.08 (0.09)0.06 (0.06)0.12 (0.12)
Time-weighted HbA1c (%)*8.93 (1.23)6.93 (0.72)8.73 (1.18)7.13 (0.73)7.92 (1.34)
Current smoker24 (19.4%)19 (15.2%)25 (20.0%)27 (21.6%)95 (19.0%)
Alcohol consumption     
 None81 (65.3%)80 (64.0%)83 (66.4%)82 (65.6%)326 (65.3%)
 Occasional11 (8.9%)12 (9.6%)8 (6.4%)11 (8.8%)42 (8.4%)
 Regular32 (25.8%)33 (26.4%)34 (27.2%)32 (25.6%)131 (26.3%)
Physical activity at job     
 Sedentary57 (46.0%)49 (39.2%)49 (39.2%)55 (44.0%)210 (42.1%)
 Moderate64 (51.6%)69 (55.2%)74 (59.2%)63 (50.4%)270 (54.1%)
 Strenuous3 (2.4%)7 (5.6%)2 (1.6%)7 (5.6%)19 (3.8%)
Leisure time physical activity     
 METs < 45038 (30.7%)47 (37.6%)38 (30.4%)52 (41.6%)175 (35.1%)
 METs 450–150039 (31.5%)34 (27.2%)41 (32.8%)34 (27.2%)148 (29.7%)
 METs > 150046 (37.1%)44 (35.2%)46 (36.8%)39 (31.2%)175 (35.1%)
 Missing1 (0.8%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)1 (0.2%)
BMI (kg/m2)24.9 (2.8)25.4 (3.3)25.0 (2.8)26.6 (4.1)25.5 (3.4)
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)112.6 (10.8)112.3 (11.4)116.2 (11.5)116.3 (10.6)114.4 (11.2)
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)73.9 (8.2)72.3 (7.7)73.8 (8.1)74.4 (8.2)73.6 (8.1)
HDL (mg/dl)52.9 (13.0)54.9 (14.7)51.0 (11.4)48.8 (11.4)51.9 (12.9)
LDL (mg/dl)107.7 (30.2)111.5 (27.0)114.4 (31.0)111.1 (28.0)111.2 (29.1)
Triglyceride (mg/dl)75.3 (41.1)74.2 (45.1)88.1 (54.2)76.7 (39.3)78.6 (45.5)
Total cholesterol (mg/dl)175.7 (34.4)181.2 (31.3)183.0 (34.6)175.3 (30.9)17.8 (32.9)
Pulse rate (beat/min)71.1 (9.8)71.2 (9.1)72.9 (9.3)73.5 (9.3)72.2 (9.4)
Age at diagnosis (years)26.5 (5.9)26.9 (5.4)19.8 (7.1)19.5 (6.7)23.2 (7.2)
Duration (months)88.1 (28.1)85.7 (23.9)173.5 (51.8)184.8 (48.5)133.1 (61.2)
Chronological age (years)34.6 (6.1)34.8 (5.6)35.0 (5.3)35.6 (5.8)35.0 (5.7)
Pan-tissue     
 DNAm age (years)35.9 (6.8)36.5 (6.3)37.3 (6.5)38.2 (6.5)37.0 (6.5)
 Epigenetic age acceleration (years)1.3 (4.5)1.8 (4.1)2.4 (4.0)2.5 (4.5)2.0 (4.3)
Skin & Blood     
 DNAm age (years)30.1 (7.5)30.2 (6.6)30.7 (6.5)32.1 (6.6)30.8 (6.9)
 Epigenetic age acceleration (years)− 4.5 (3.1)− 4.5 (3.1)− 4.3 (3.2)− 3.5 (3.2)− 4.2 (3.2)
PhenoAge     
 DNAm age (years)27.1 (8.1)26.8 (7.3)27.0 (7.8)28.2 (8.0)27.3 (7.8)
 Epigenetic age acceleration (years)− 7.5 (5.8)− 8.0 (5.0)− 7.9 (5.0)− 7.4 (5.7)− 7.7 (5.4)
GrimAge     
 DNAm age (years)40.3 (6.9)40.3 (6.6)40.7 (6.5)42.2 (7.0)40.8 (6.8)
 Epigenetic age acceleration (years)5.7 (4.7)5.5 (4.3)5.7 (4.8)6.6 (5.0)5.9 (4.7)
  1. All factors were obtained at DNAm measurement except for stimulated C-peptide which is measured at DCCT eligibility
  2. MET metabolic equivalent of task
  3. *Time-weighted HbA1c since DCCT baseline
  4. †Level of activity on the job, at school, or in home making: sedentary such as office work with occasional inter-office walking; moderate activity requires considerable but not constant lifting, walking, bending, pulling, etc. such as homemaker with family and without domestic assistance; and strenuous activity requires almost constant lifting, bending, pulling, scrubbing, etc. such as furniture mover
  5. ‡According to the international classification by Ainsworth used by American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), light, moderate, hard, and very hard activity was allocated 3, 4, 6, and 9 METs, respectively. For each participant, these allocated MET values were multiplied by the time (min) spent in that activity to obtain the MET for that level of activity. The sum of METs from all activities was recorded as the total leisure time activity for each participant. Subjects then were categorized into three groups based on the ACSM recommendation for METs min/week [17, 18]