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Fig. 2 | Clinical Epigenetics

Fig. 2

From: Smoking index, lifestyle factors, and genomic instability assessed by single-cell gel electrophoresis: a cross-sectional study in subjects from Yucatan, Mexico

Fig. 2

DNA damage and smoking. a Three PCA groups involving comet (blue diamonds), head (green squares), and tail (orange triangles) showed direct significant correlation with smoking index (r = .299, p = 0.007; r = .318, p = 0.004; and r = .287, p = 0.009, respectively). b Group comparison showing higher rates of DNA damage in smokers group (green bars); the three combined PCA that displayed significant differences (p ≤ 0.01) were the same for smoking index: comet, head, and tail (p = 0.002, p = 0.001, p = 0.010). c Former and current smokers had higher DNA damage rates represented by one group of PCA (head), p < 0.03 when compared to never smoker group. d Adult smokers (green bars) displayed higher DNA damage in three combined PCA groups (comet, head, tail) compared to their counterparts, non-smokers (blue bars), p = 0.035, p = 0.016, p = 0.025, respectively

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