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Table 4 Longitudinal associations of dietary intake of vitamin B12 with global and domain-specific cognitive decline

From: Dietary intakes and biomarker patterns of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 can be associated with cognitive impairment by hypermethylation of redox-related genes NUDT15 and TXNRD1

Cognitive performance Vitamin B12 (μg/day)
1st quartile 2nd quartile 3rd quartile 4th quartile
MMSE B (95%CI) − 0.30 (− 0.43, − 0.16) − 0.21 (− 0.34, − 0.08) Ref 0.32 (0.17, 0.46)
P value < 0.001* 0.002* Ref < 0.001*
MoCA B (95%CI) − 0.56 (− 0.77, − 0.36) − 0.49 (− 0.69, − 0.29) Ref 0.38 (0.16, 0.60)
P value < 0.001* < 0.001* Ref 0.001*
AVLT-IR B (95%CI) − 0.65 (− 0.97, − 0.33) − 0.60 (− 0.92, − 0.27) Ref − 0.01 (− 0.35, 0.35)
P value < 0.001* < 0.001* Ref 0.987
AVLT-SR B (95%CI) − 0.30 (− 0.46, − 0.14) − 0.08 (− 0.24, 0.09) Ref − 0.04 (− 0.21, 0.14)
P value < 0.001* 0.352 Ref 0.687
AVLT-LR B (95%CI) − 0.32 (− 0.49, − 0.14) − 0.11 (− 0.29, 0.07) Ref 0.01 (− 0.19, 0.20)
P value < 0.001* 0.231 Ref 0.957
SDMT B (95%CI) − 1.78 (− 2.47, − 1.09) − 1.22 (− 1.89, − 0.55) Ref 1.17 (− 0.43, 1.92)
P value < 0.001* < 0.001* Ref 0.272
LMT B (95%CI) − 0.70 (− 1.14, − 0.26) − 0.69 (− 1.12, − 0.27) Ref 0.17 (− 0.30, 0.64)
P value 0.002* 0.001* Ref 0.483
DSF B (95%CI) − 0.13 (− 0.22, − 0.03) 0.01 (− 0.08, 0.09) Ref − 0.08 (− 0.18, 0.02)
P value 0.007* 0.893 Ref 0.117
DSB B (95%CI) − 0.11 (− 0.20, − 0.03) − 0.11 (− 0.19, − 0.03) Ref 0.03 (− 0.06, 0.12)
P value 0.007* 0.008* Ref 0.487
  1. MMSE mini-mental state examination, MoCA Montreal Cognitive Assessment, AVLT-IR auditory verbal learning test-immediate recall, AVLT-SR auditory verbal learning test-short recall, AVLT-LR auditory verbal learning test-long recall, SDMT symbol digit modalities test, LMT logical memory test, DSF digit span forwards, DSB digit span backwards
  2. B: regression coefficients of linear mixed-effect models
  3. P < 0.05