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Table 2 Early changes in methylation patterns and associated clinical variables

From: Longitudinal variation in human immunodeficiency virus long terminal repeat methylation in individuals on suppressive antiretroviral therapy

  Short-Term ART group (30 months) p valuea Short-term ART group (42 months) p valueb p valuec Long-term ART group
CpG methylation Index 0 (0–58.4) 0.005 74.7 (0–85.3) 0.273 0.025 77.9 (70.8–86.7)
Additional CpG methylation Indexd 0.8 (0–21.0) 0.155 27.0 (4.3–45.1) 0.163 0.074 20.0 (13.8–20.0)
Non–CpG methylation Indexe 1.3 (0–9.5) 0.388 0 (0–0) 0.332 0.093 0 (0–2.2)
Residual pVL (RNA copies/mL) 1.4 (0–3.6) 0.737 3.4 (0–7.1) 0.305 0.176 0.4 (0–2.9)
Proviral load (DNA copies/million CD4+ T cells) 14146 (517–29277) 0.526 3638 (228–10216) 0.260 0.005 9780 (4 057–13716)
Naive CD4+ T cells (%) 25.2 (20.6–52.6) 0.944 29.1 (18.3–49.1) 0.888 0.114 39.4 (11.2–45.4)
Memory CD4+ T cells (%) 74.8 (47.4–79.4) 0.944 70.9 (50.9–81.7) 0.888 0.114 60.6 (54.6–88.8)
 TSCM (%) 5.6 (3.0–6.9) 0.049 4.2 (2.9–7.1) 0.035 0.508 9.4 (5.7–15.9)
 TCM (%) 23.2 (15.3–31.2) 0.673 21.7 (12.7–33.0) 0.439 0.169 23.8 (19.5–40.9)
 TEM (%) 12.5 (2.1–20.4) 0.398 10.1 (3.2–12.5) 0.205 0.333 6.3 (4.8–9.3)
 TTM (%) 15.0 (11.3–25.4) 0.091 13.8 (11.4–31.5) 0.049 0.799 8.3 (4.5–16.6)
 TNEW (%) 1.1 (0.6–1.5) 0.003 2.5 (1.6–3.6) 0.526 0.005 2.0 (1.5–3.9)
TTE (%) 2.3 (0.3–11.1) 0.181 5.0 (1.2–9.8) 0.944 0.285 4.8 (2.7–7.8)
  1. In all cases, medians (interquartile ranges) are shown. Significant p values (p < 0.05) are shown in italic
  2. ART antiretroviral therapy, pVL plasma viral load, TSCM stem cell memory T cells, TCM central memory T cells, TEM effector memory T cells, TTM transitional memory T cells, TNEW T new, TTE terminally differentiated effector T cells
  3. aShort-term ART group (30 months) vs. long-term ART group
  4. bShort-term ART group (42 months) vs. long-term ART group
  5. cShort-term ART group (30 months) vs. short-term ART group (42 months)
  6. dConsiders methylation of CpG positions not present in the reference HXB2
  7. eConsiders methylation of non-CpG positions only