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Fig. 1 | Clinical Epigenetics

Fig. 1

From: Deciphering DNA methylation signatures of pancreatic cancer and pancreatitis

Fig. 1

Genetic landscape of pancreatic cancer. Genes mutated in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PT, top) and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET, bottom). For the former, genetic predisposition or copy number alterations are also reported (reviewed in [25]). At the pre-neoplastic stage (dotted line), pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PIN) and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) coexist. Overall, aberrant homeostasis of genes regulating cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis promote the transition from pre-neoplastic to advanced stages of the disease [26,27,28,29,30,31]. Chronic pancreatitis (CP) may also be present, contributing to the progression of an underlying tumor

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