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Table 1 Particulate matter effects on DNA methylation, in different life stages

From: Particulate matter exposure shapes DNA methylation through the lifespan

Life stage ↑/↓* Genes Type Tissue Ref. Number
Preconceptional Global Mouse Sperm Yauk et al. (2008) [14]
Pregnancy, first trimester LINE-1 Human Blood spots Breton et al. (2016) [15]
Pregnancy, first trimester Global Human Placenta Janssen et al. (2013) [16]
Pregnancy, first trimester LINE-1 Human Placenta Cai et al. (2017) [17]
Pregnancy LINE-1 Human Placenta Kingsley et al. (2016) [18]
Pregnancy ↑↓ 7 CpG sites (i.e., three located near PTPRN2, TMEM125, and VPS4A genes, the other 4 sites mapped to non-genic regions) Human Placenta Kingsley et al. (2016) [18]
Pregnancy, first and second trimester HSD11B2 Human Placenta Oakley and Cidlowski (2013) [19]
Pregnancy, second trimester SOD2 Human Cord blood and maternal blood Zhou et al. (2019) [20]
Pregnancy ↑↓ APEX1, OGG1, ERCC4, TP53 DAPK1 Human Placenta Neven et al. (2018) [21]
Pregnancy, third trimester NPAS2, CRY1, PER2, PER3 Human Placenta Nawrot et al. (2018) [22]
Pregnancy, first trimester D-loop, MT-RNR1 Human Placenta Janssen et al. (2015) [23]
Childhood, asthma Immune genes (e.g., IL13 and RUNX3) Human Blood Yang et al. (2015) [24]
Childhood, asthma FOXP3 Human Blood Prunicki et al. (2018) [25]
Childhood IL-4, IFN-γ Human Blood Jung et al. (2017) [26]
Childhood TET1 Human Nasal airway cells Somineni et al. (2016) [27]
Childhood FAM13A, NOTCH4 Human Blood Gruzieva et al. (2019) [28]
Adult age, healthy ↑↓ MATN4, ARPP21, CFTR Human Blood Gondalia et al. (2019) [29]
Adult age, obese CD14, TLR4 Human Blood Cantone et al. (2017) [30]
Adult age, occupational exposure NOS3, EDN1 Human Blood Tarantini et al. (2013) [31]
Adult age, CVD ↑↓ cg20455854, cg07855639, cg07598385, cg17360854, cg23599683 Human Blood Chi et al. (2016) [32]
Adult age, CVD Global Human Blood Plusquin et al. (2017) [33]
Adult age, CVD Alu, TLR4 Human, crossover Blood Bellavia et al. (2013) [34]
Adult age, CVD IFN-γ Human, crossover Blood Tobaldini et al. (2018) [35]
Adult age, CVD ↑↓ Loci related to insulin resistance, glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammation, oxidative stress, platelet activation, and cell survival and apoptosis Human, crossover Blood Li et al. (2018) [36]
Adult age, CVD ↑↓ Loci related to apoptosis, cell death and metabolic pathways, or associated with ion binding and shuttling In vitro Human cardiomyocytes AC16 Yang et al. (2018) [37]
Adult age, respiratory disease ↑↓ 2827 CpG sites (genes involved in inflammation and oxidative stress response), repetitive elements, and microRNA Human, crossover Blood Jiang et al. (2014) [38]
Adult age, respiratory disease ↑↓ 12 differentially methylated probes and 27 differentially methylated regions Human Blood Lee et al. (2019) [39]
Adult age, cancer P16INK4A In vitro Ex vivo lymphocytes Fougere et al. (2018) [40]
Adult age, cancer P16INK4A In vitro Primary human bronchial epithelial cells Leclercq et al. (2017) [41]
Adult age, cancer ↑↓ 66 genes In vitro BEAS-2B cells Hesselbach et al. (2017) [42]
Adult age, cancer ↑↓ P16INK4A, APC, LINE-1, NOS2 Mouse Blood Ding et al. (2016) [43]
Adult age, cancer, DOHaD ↑↓ SYK, CCND2 Human Blood Callahan et al. (2018) [44]
Adult age MT-TF, MT-RNR1 Human Blood Byun et al. (2013) [45]
Adult age D-loop Human Blood Byun et al. (2016) [46]
Elderly ↑↓ Genes involved in tumor development, gene regulation, inflammatory stimuli, pulmonary disorders, and glucose metabolism Human Blood Panni et al. (2016) [47]
Elderly ↑↓ LINE-1, Alu, IL-6 Human Blood Bind et al. (2012) [48]
Elderly iNOS Human Blood Madrigano et al. (2012) [49]
  1. *Increase (↑) or decrease (↓) in DNA methylation