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Fig. 4 | Clinical Epigenetics

Fig. 4

From: “Too much guts and not enough brains”: (epi)genetic mechanisms and future therapies of Hirschsprung disease — a review

Fig. 4

Epigenetic regulation. a DNA methylation; methyl groups attach to cytosine residues on the DNA strand. Histone modifications; the DNA strand wraps around an octamer of four core histones to form a nucleosome. Each of the histone proteins has characteristic side chains or tails enriched in lysine and arginine residues. These side chains and tails can be modified post-translationally, modifications such as methylation, ubiquitination, acetylation, and phosphorylation. b mRNA modifications either occur in the 5′cap, in the coding region, or in the 3′ or 5′ untranslated region. Chemical modifications in mRNA are illustrated in the figure; N6, 2′-O-dimethyladenosine (m6Am); N1-methyladenosine (m1A); Pseudouridine (Ψ); 5-hydroxylmethylcytidine (hm5C); N6-methyladenosine (m6A); Inosine (I); and 5-methylcytidine (m5C)

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