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Table 1 Detail on the studies reviewed. This table describes features of the studies described in this review, including the first author’s surname, study location, detail on cohorts, volunteer number, sample types collected, and study details. NA not applicable, ND not determined, NR not reported, LINE long interspersed nuclear element, LUR land use regression. For additional details on the studies reviewed, please see Additional file 1: Table S1

From: Air pollution and DNA methylation: effects of exposure in humans

Study Author - Year Cohorts Study Location(s) Number of Volunteers Average Age (years) Sample Type(s) DNAm Analysis Air Pollution Analysis
In Utero Studies
Gruzieva 2017 MeDALL Europe 280 0 Cord Blood Illumina 450 K ESCAPE project LUR NO2 data
Generation R Netherlands 809 0 Cord Blood
CHS USA 226 0 Cord Blood
MoBa Norway 193 0 Cord Blood
BAMSE Sweden 733 4.4 Blood
MeDALL Europe 444 8.2 Blood
BAMSE EpiGene Sweden 342 8.3 Blood
Goodrich 2016 Mother and Child Environmental Durban, South Africa 22 26.1 Cord Blood Illumina 450 K NOx exposures from LUR
Maghbooli 2018 Low pollution area Tehran, Iran 44 30.09 Placenta HPLC High and Low Pollution Areas
High pollution area 48 30
Cai 2017 Normal Wenzhou, China 101 26.7 Placenta Pyrosequencing PM10 from LUR models
Fetal Growth Restriction Wenzhou, China 80 26.7
Kingsley 2016 Rhode Island Child Health Study Providence, USA 471 30 Placenta Illumina 450 K and pyrosequencing Mothers categorized by distance from highways
Studies in Children
Breton 2016 Children’s Health Study California, USA 459 11.2 Blood Pyrosequencing LUR for PM2.5, PM10, NO2 and O3
Hew 2015 NA Fresno, USA 171 13.7 Blood T regulatory cells Pyrosequencing LUR for PAH
85 15.1
Somineni 2016 Exposure Sibling Study for discovery Cincinnati, USA 70 11 Nasal Brushings (validation in saliva, PBMCs and bronchial epithelial cells) Illumina 450 K and pyrosequencing LUR for black carbon
Pediatric Environmental Exposure Study for replication Cincinnati, USA 186 12
Lovinsky-Desir 2017 Non-Active New York, USA 58 12.7 Buccal swabs (94% squamous epithelial cells) Pyrosequencing BC assessed by vest mounted monitors and activity by accelerometer
Active 77 12.2
Studies in Adults
Jiang 2014 NA Vancouver, Canada 16 56 Blood Illumina 450 K Controlled exposures to diesel exhaust and filtered air
Bind 2014 Normative Aging Study (NAS) Boston, USA 777 72 Blood Pyrosequencing PM2.5, particle number and BC assessed by LUR
Bind 2015 Normative Aging Study (NAS) Boston, USA 777 72 Blood Pyrosequencing PM2.5, particle number and BC from LUR
Lee 2017 Normative Aging Study (NAS) Boston, USA 92 ND Blood Probably pyrosequencing BC and sulfate from LUR
Chi 2016 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Baltimore, New York, St. Paul, Winston-Salem USA 1207 69.6 PBMC Illumina 450 K PM2.5 and NOx concentrations from spatiotemporal models
Panni 2016 KORA F3 Augsburg, Germany 500 53 Blood Illumina 450 K PM2.5 exposures from LUR models
KORA F4 1799 61
Normative Aging Study Boston, USA 657 72
Mostafavi 2017 EPIC Italy Cohort Italy 95 ~ 50 PBMC Agilent 4x44K and Ilumina 450 K NOx estimated with LUR
Northern Swedish Health and Disease Study Cohort Northern Sweden 455 ~ 50 PBMC
Plusquin 2017 EPIC-Italy Italy 454 54.2 Blood Illumina 450 K PM10, PM2.5, NO2 and NOx from LUR models
EPIC-Netherlands Netherlands 159 58.8
De F.C. Lichtenfels 2018 LifeLines Groningen, Netherlands 1017 47.3 Blood Illumina 450 K NO2, PM10, PM2.5 from LUR models
Mostafavi 2018 EXPOsOMICS Italy, Netherlands, Switzerland, United Kingdom 157 61 Blood Illumina 450 K PM2.5 assessed using backpack sensor, outdoor sensor and LUR model
Lepeule 2014 Normative Aging Study (NAS) Boston, USA 776 72 Blood Pyrosequencing BC, CO, NO2, O3 and PM2.5 were modeled using LUR
Peng 2016 Normative Aging Study Boston, USA 551 ~ 76 Blood Pyrosequencing PM2.5 assessed using a hybrid LUR and satelite based model
Zhong 2017 NA Toronto, Canada 10 19–49 CD4+ Th Cells (~ 96% pure) Illumina 450 K Controlled exposures to filtered air and concentrated ambient PM2.5
De Nys 2018 NA Leuven, Belgium 23 22.3 Buccal swabs UPLC - mass spectrometry PM2.5 and PM10 from LUR
Clifford 2017 NA Vancouver, Canada 16 28.8 Bronchial brushings (~97% epithelial cells) Illumina 450 K Controlled exposures to diesel exhaust and allergen, with filtered air and saline controls