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Table 3. Expressional breadth and function of genes exhibiting either imprinting or biased parental allelic expression in the human placenta

From: Parent-of-origin-specific allelic expression in the human placenta is limited to established imprinted loci and it is stably maintained across pregnancy

Gene Tissues with imprinted expression/all tissues with available expression data in GTEx [7] Tissue expression Function
Confirmed placental imprinted genes
MEG3 (ncRNA) Imprinting in all 33 available tissues Placenta and adrenal enriched Tumor suppressor; angiogenesis inhibitor
PHLDA2 Limited transcription in other organs than placenta and biallelic expression in all these tissues Placenta enriched Trophoblast function
RTL1 Imprinting in adrenal, brain, pituitary tissues Placenta and adrenal enriched Maintenance of the fetal capillaries
H19 (ncRNA) Imprinting in 34/35 tissues Placenta enriched Tumor suppressor
PEG10 Imprinting in 26/30 tissues Placenta and adrenal enriched Cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis
IGF2 Imprinting in 25/33 tissuesa Placenta enriched Fetal development and growth
MEST Imprinting in 19/33 tissues Placenta enriched Invasion of extravillous trophoblast
ZFAT Limited transcription in other organs than placenta and biallelic expression in all these tissues Placenta enriched Regulator of apoptosis and cell survival
PLAGL1 Imprinting in 31/34 tissues Placenta enriched Suppressor of cell growth
DLK1 Imprinting in 10/12 tissues Placenta and adrenal enriched Cell growth and differentiation
AIM1 n.a. Placenta enhanced Transporter mediating melanin synthesis
Genes with high-confidence biased parental allelic expression in the placenta
KLHDC10 No reported imprinting signals in any tissues All tissues Oxidative stress-induced cell death
NLRP2 Non-parental monoallelic expression, but not consistent with imprinting Mixed tissues; high in testis Regulation of immune response, inflammation
GRB10 Imprinting in the brainb All tissues Interaction with insulin receptors and insulin-like growth-factor receptors
NAA60 No reported imprinting signals in any tissues All tissues Chromatin assembly, chromosome integrity
CPXM2 No reported imprinting signals in any tissues Epididymis and smooth muscle enhanced Carboxypeptidase enzyme
MCCC1 No reported imprinting signals in any tissues All tissues Carboxylation enzyme
PLEKHG4B No reported imprinting signals in any tissues Thyroid and pituitary enhanced Guanine nucleotide exchange factor
DCAF10 No reported imprinting signals in any tissues All tissues Possibly ligase function
DNMT1 No reported imprinting signals in any tissues All tissues Maintenance of DNA methylation
NUDT12 No imprinting, but heterogeneous patterns of monoallelic expression Mixed tissues Regulation of nucleotides concentrations
RHOBTB3 No reported imprinting signals in any tissues All tissues Associated with Golgi, GTPase function
ZDBF2 Imprinting in 32/34 tissues Mixed tissues Zinc finger protein with unknown function
MKRN3 Imprinting in the brain, esophagus (mucosa) Brain, placenta, testis enhanced Inhibitor of GnRH secretion in childhood
GRHL1 No reported imprinting signals in any tissues Esophagus and skin enhanced Transcription factor critical in the development
  1. For the majority of genes, the information on the expression in human tissues/organs was derived from Protein Atlas [31]. For RNA genes, the information on the tissue expression was derived from NCBI Gene [33]. The same database was applied to extract functional information on the analyzed genes. n.d., not described
  2. aPaternal allele expression in all tissues except brain with maternal allele expression
  3. bPaternal expression in brain and maternal in the placenta