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Table 1 Overview of placental epigenetic targets in association with air pollution exposure

From: Air pollution-induced placental alterations: an interplay of oxidative stress, epigenetics, and the aging phenotype?

Author Study population Technique Studied air pollutant Result
DNA methylation
 Global DNA methylation
  Janssen et al. [35] 240 mother-newborn pairs from the ENVIRONAGE birth cohort, Belgium UPLC/MS-MS + 5 μg/m3 PM2.5 during the implantation period (6–21 days after conception) Global methylation − 1.08%, 95% CI − 1.80 to − 0.36%, p = 0.004
+ 5 μg/m3 PM2.5 during the first trimester Global methylation − 2.41%, 95% CI − 3.62 to − 1.20%, p = 0.0001
+ 5 μg/m3 PM2.5 during the second trimester Global methylation − 1.51%, 95% CI − 2.66 to − 0.36%, p = 0.01
+ 5 μg/m3 PM2.5 during the entire pregnancy Global methylation − 2.19%, 95% CI − 3.65 to − 0.73%, p = 0.004
  Kingsley et al. [36] 471 mother-newborn pairs from the RICHS birth cohort, USA Bisulfite-PCR-pyrosequencing ≤ 150 m primary highway or primary road or ≤ 50 m from secondary road Living close to major roadway: LINE-1 − 0.82%, 95% CI − 1.57 to − 0.07%, p = 0.03 AluYb8: no association, p = 0.07
  Cai et al. [37] 181 mother-newborn pairs (80 fetal growth restriction newborns, 101 normal newborns) from Wenzhou, China Bisulfite-PCR-pyrosequencing + 10 μg/m3 PM10 during the first trimester of pregnancy Fetal growth restricted newborns: LINE-1 − 1.78%, 95% CI − 3.35 to − 0.22% , p < 0.05 Normal newborns: LINE-1 no association
  Maghbooli Z et al. [38] Nested case-control (n = 50/50) of pregnant women in Tehran, Iran RP-HPLC PM2.5 and PM10 during the first trimester Global methylation: r = 0.26 (p = 0.01) and r = 0.38 (p = 0.0001) respectively
  Abraham et al. [39] 668 mother-newborn pairs from the EDEN cohort, France Bisulfite-PCR-pyrosequencing + 10 μg/m3 PM10 day before birth Global methylation: Alu: β = 0.08; p = 0.01 LINE-1: β = 0.09; p = 0.28
 Gene-specific methylation
  Janssen et al. [49] 381 mother-newborn pairs from the ENVIRONAGE birth cohort, Belgium Bisulfite-PCR-pyrosequencing + 7.8 μg/m3 PM2.5 during the first trimester of pregnancy MT-RNR1 + 1.27%, 95% CI 0.23 to 2.32%, p < 0.05 D-loop + 0.44%, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.75%, p < 0.05
    + 3 μg/m3 PM2.5 during the entire pregnancy MT-RNR1 + 0.91%, 95% CI 0.56 to 4.18%, p < 0.05 D-loop + 0.21%, 95% CI − 0.003 to 1.02%, p > 0.05
  Cai et al. [37] 181 mother-newborn pairs (80 fetal growth restriction newborns, 101 normal newborns) from Wenzhou, China Bisulfite-PCR-pyrosequencing + 10 μg/m3 PM10 during the first trimester of pregnancy Fetal growth restricted newborns: HSD11B2 + 1.03%, 95% CI 0.07 to 1.98%, p < 0.05
  + 10 μg/m3 PM10 during the second trimester of pregnancy Fetal growth restricted newborns: HSD11B2 + 2.23%, 95% CI 0.69 to 3.76%, p < 0.05 Total population: HSD11B2 + 1.42%, 95% CI 0.24 to 2.57%, p < 0.05
    + 10 μg/m3 PM10 during the entire pregnancy Total population: HSD11B2 + 1.98, 95% CI 0.53 to 3.43%, p < 0.05
  Saenen et al. [48] 361 mother-newborn pairs from the ENVIRONAGE birth cohort, Belgium Bisulfite-PCR-pyrosequencing + 7.5 μg/m3 PM2.5 during the second trimester LEP − 1.4%, 95% CI − 2.7 to − 0.19%, p = 0.02
  Neven et al. [45] 463 mother-newborn pairs from the ENVIRONAGE birth cohort, Belgium Bisulfite-PCR-pyrosequencing + 3.84 μg/m3 PM2.5 during the entire pregnancy APEX1 + 7.34%, 95% CI 0.52 to 14.16%, p = 0.009 OGG1 + 13.06%, 95% CI 3.88 to 22.24%, p = 0.005 ERCC4 + 16.31%, 95% CI 5.43 to 27.18%, p = 0.003 p53 + 10.60%, 95% CI 4.46 to 16.74%, p = 0.003 DAPK1 − 12.92%, 95% CI − 22.35 to − 3.49%, p = 0.007
+ 0.36 μg/m3 BC during the entire pregnancy APEX1 + 9.16%, 95% CI 4.06 to 14.25%, p = 0.005 ERCC4 + 27.56% 95% CI 17.58 to 37.55%, p < 0.0001
  Nawrot et al. [42] 407 mother-newborn pairs from the ENVIRONAGE birth cohort, Belgium Bisulfite-PCR-pyrosequencing + 8.9 μg/m3 PM2.5 during the third trimester Log(fold change) NPAS2 0.16, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.27, p = 0.002 Log(fold change) CRY1-2 0.59, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.95, p = 0.002 Log(fold change) PER1 − 0.51, 95% CI − 0.90 to − 0.13, p = 0.001 Log(fold change) PER3 0.42, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.67, p = 0.001
    + 7.9 μg/m3 PM2.5 during the first trimester Log(fold change) CLOCK − 0.59, 95% CI − 0.93 to − 0.25, p < 0.001
miRNA expression
  Tsamou et al. [65] 210 mother-newborn pairs from the ENVIRONAGE birth cohort, Belgium qRT-PCR + 5 μg/m3 PM2.5 during the first trimester of pregnancy miR-20a + 70.9%, 95% CI 16.7 to 150.3%, p = 0.007 miR-21 + 73.7%, 95% CI 11.7 to 170.1%, p = 0.015
+ 5 μg/m3 PM2.5 during the second trimester of pregnancy miR-146a − 30.9%, 95% CI − 48.0 to − 8.1%, p = 0.012 miR-222 − 25.4%, 95% CI − 43.0 to − 2.4%, p = 0.034 miR-21 − 33.7%, 95% CI − 53.2 to − 6.2%, p = 0.022