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Table 3 Association of exposure to severe famine with CpG1 site of the IGF2 gene among GRECF study participants

From: Early-life exposure to severe famine is associated with higher methylation level in the IGF2 gene and higher total cholesterol in late adulthood: the Genomic Research of the Chinese Famine (GRECF) study

   Age- and sex-adjusted model* Pinteraction Fully adjusted model** Pinteraction§
Methylation   Beta( SE) P Beta( SE) P
Overall Overall 0.005 (0.01) 0.70 0.89 0.004 (0.01) 0.75 0.91
  Male 0.005 (0.02) 0.78 0.003 (0.02) 0.87
  Female 0.006 (0.02) 0.76 0.003 (0.02) 0.88
CpG1 site Overall 0.07 (0.02) 0.0008 0.18 0.07 (0.02) 0.002 0.15
  Male 0.04 (0.02) 0.09 0.03 (0.03) 0.24
  Female 0.10 (0.03) 0.004 0.10 (0.04) 0.008
CpG2 site Overall − 0.01 (0.02) 0.82 0.56 − 0.01 (0.03) 0.78 0.73
  Male 0.005 (0.03) 0.88 − 0.002 (0.04) 0.95
  Female − 0.01(0.04) 0.72 − 0.008 (0.04) 0.84
CpG3 site Overall 0.02 (0.02) 0.42 0.08 0.02 (0.02) 0.41 0.07
  Male 0.05 (0.03) 0.04 0.06 (0.03) 0.03
  Female − 0.02 (0.03) 0.54 − 0.02 (0.03) 0.45
CpG4 site Overall − 0.02 (0.02) 0.27 0.71 − 0.02 (0.02) 0.24 0.52
  Male − 0.01 (0.02) 0.54 − 0.01 (0.02) 0.63
  Female − 0.03 (0.03) 0.36 − 0.04 (0.03) 0.22
CpG5 site Overall 0.01 (0.01) 0.24 0.64 0.01 (0.01) 0.29 0.83
  Male 0.008 (0.01) 0.33 0.005 (0.01) 0.53
  Female 0.007 (0.01) 0.47 0.01 (0.01) 0.33
CpG6 and CpG7 site Overall − 0.02 (0.01) 0.13 0.24 − 0.02 (0.01) 0.15 0.38
  Male − 0.004 (0.02) 0.78 − 0.002 (0.02) 0.91
  Female − 0.04 (0.02) 0.11 − 0.04 (0.02) 0.12
CpG8 site Overall − 0.02 (0.02) 0.44 0.56 − 0.02 (0.02) 0.27 0.75
  Male − 0.005 (0.02) 0.83 − 0.019 (0.02) 0.41
  Female − 0.03 (0.03) 0.43 − 0.04 (0.03) 0.26
  1. SE standard error
  2. *Adjusted for age and sex among the overall sample; adjusted for age among male and female, respectively
  3. Assessed by adding an interaction term, gender × famine severity to the age- and sex-adjusted model among the overall participants
  4. **Adjusted for age, sex, smoking, drinking, and education level among the overall sample
  5. §Assessed by adding an interaction term, gender × famine severity to the fully adjusted model among the overall participants