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Table 3 Summary of studies reporting associations between prenatal exposure to heavy metal and epigenetic alterations

From: Prenatal epigenetics diets play protective roles against environmental pollution

Heavy metal Exposure stage Epigenetic change Ref.
Arsenic In utero Altered DNA methylation status of specific genes in the placenta [191]
Prenatal Altered DNA methylation in artery and placenta [199]
Prenatal Altered DNA methylation in newborn cord blood [192, 193, 196, 197]
Early pregnancy Decreased DNA methylation in cord blood [194]
Cadmium Prenatal Differentially methylated CpG sites [208]
Early pregnancy Altered DNA methylation at multiple DMRs in offspring with sex and possibly race/ethnic-specific effects [203]
Maternal Decreased DNA methylation levels in placental PCDHAC1 promoter [206]
Prenatal Altered DNA methylation differently in girls and boys [204]
Maternal Altered DNA methylation levels in the leukocyte of newborns and their mothers [205]
Mercury Prenatal Increased DNA methylation in umbilical cord blood of infants [190]
In utero Hypomethylation of EMID2 gene in placental samples [230]
Prenatal Related to DNA methylation at the TCEANC2 region in cord blood samples [231]
Lead Prenatal Hypermethylation at the MEC3 DMR regulatory region [223]
In utero Sex-specific trends between Pb and DNA methylation [222, 227, 228]
Prenatal Hypomethylation of genomic DNA and Alu and LINE-1 genes in cord blood [224]
Manganese Prenatal Altered placental DNA methylation [229]