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Table 2 Summary of studies reporting associations between prenatal exposure to EDCs and epigenetic alterations

From: Prenatal epigenetics diets play protective roles against environmental pollution

Chemical Model Exposure stage Epigenetic change Ref.
Bisphenol A Mouse In utero Increased EZH gene expression in the mammary gland [138]
Human and mouse Perinatal Differential DNA methylation in repetitive DNA [141]
Human In utero Altered genome-wide DNA methylation in fetal liver [144]
Human 1st to 2nd trimester Increased site-specific methylation at COMT and SULT2A1 promoters in fetal liver [145]
Mouse Preconception to weaning Hypomethylation and increased expression of the Avy gene in agouti mouse model [11]
Mouse In utero Decreased methylation in Hoxa10 gene promoter [139]
Rat Perinatal Modified hepatic DNA methylation [140]
Sheep Prenatal Altered microRNA expression [142]
Mouse In utero Both hyper- and hypomethylation at the promoter-associated CGIs [132]
Human In utero Positively associated with global methylation for the placenta [143]
Vinclozolin Mouse In utero Decreased methylation in H19 and Gtl2; increased methylation in Peg1, Snrpn, and Peg3 [151]
Rat In utero Altered epigenetic modification in the male germ line [150]
Rat In utero Altered methylation in sperm promoter epigenome of F3 generation [152]
Mouse In utero Epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of modifications in the mouse sperm epigenome [124]
POPs Dioxin Mouse In utero Increased methylation in Igf2r gene in muscle and liver [175]
Mouse Preimplantation Altered methylation status of imprinted genes H19 and Igf2 [176]
Diethylstilbestrol Mouse In utero Increased EZH gene expression in the mammary gland [138]
Mouse In utero Hypermethylation and long-term altered expression of the Hoxa10 gene [177]
Mouse Neonatal Hypomethylation in Exon-4 of c-fos [178]
Methoxychlor Mouse In utero Altered methylation in H19 and Gtl2 and increased methylation in Peg1, Snrpn, and Peg3 [151]
Rat In utero Hypermethylation in the ERβ promoter regions [179]
PBDEs Human Prenatal DNA hypomethylation of Alu and LINE-1 in fetal blood [168]
Human Maternal Hypomethylation of TNF-α in core blood [169]
Human In utero Hypomethylation of IGF2 and NR3C1 in placenta [170, 171]
PFOAs Human Prenatal Hypomethylation in sperm cells [173, 174]
Human Prenatal Global and IGF2 hypomethylation in cord blood [95, 172]