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Table 1 Studies investigating the association between the epigenetic clock and ageing, perceived age, or longevity

From: The epigenetic clock as a predictor of disease and mortality risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Paper Study (country) Characteristics: n, mean (SD) age, sex Outcome Sample; platform Clock* DNAmAge associations
[correlation with chronological age]
Adj.
[65] Study of semi-super centenarians (SSC), from three cities.
Case-control
(Italy)
75 SSC, 106 (NS), 79% ♀;
63 SSC offspring, 72 (NS), 40% ♀;
46 controls, 70 (NS), 80% ♀
Longevity PBMCs; 450 K AAH IEAAH EEAA ↓ 5.1 years SSC offspring vs. controls (p = 0.0004, significant AAH and IEAAH). EEAA NS.
↓ 8.6 years SSC vs. their age (β 6.58, p = 0.03) but NS vs. offspring
[EAH assumed, r = 0.89]
Age, sex, cell %
[73] Case-control
YFS (25 years FU)
V90+ (4 years FU)
(Finland)
YFS: 49, 15 (NS), 59.2% ♀;
44, 18 (NS), 68.2% ♀;
55, 21 (NS), 56.4% ♀;
35, 24 (NS), 60.0% ♀.
V90+: 122, 90 (NS), 73% ♀;
21 CT, aged 19–29, 66% ♀
Ageing Blood (BL/FU); 450 K EAH YFS: ∆ EAH over 25 years relatively stable (r = 0.54, p < 0.001);
V90+: ↑∆ EAH over 4 years in younger versus older individuals (7 vs. 4 years, p = 0.02).
[r = 0.59–0.79, depending on sex and cohort]
Age, sex
[71] Cohort Study
SCS, OATS, BSGS
(Australia)
275 Total, aged 34 to 103.
SCS: 23, 97.9 (1.9), 47.8% ♀;
OATS: 113, 70.4 (5.5), 61.9% ♀;
BSGS: 139, 46.6 (5.6), 52.5% ♀
Ageing Blood; 450 K All No correlation between DNAmAge separate studies
SCS: ↓ AAHa but ↑ AAH compared to OATS and BSGS. No sig. between cohorts on IEAAH, IEAAHa and EEAA .
[EAH r = 0.93, EAHa r = 0.96]
None
[66] Case-control
CRELES
(Costa Rica)
Case-control sub-sample:
48 Nicoya, age 83 (14), 57% ♀;
47 non-Nicoya, age 85 (16), 55% ♀
Longevity Whole blood; 450 K EAH EAHa No ∆ EAH/EAHa between groups (Nicoyans vs. non-Nicoyans)
[EAH r = 0.86, EAHa r = 0.85]
Age
  1. AAH, age acceleration (Horvath); AAHa, age acceleration (Hannum); BL, baseline; BSGS, Brisbane Systems Genetics Study; CRELES, Costa Rican Study on Longevity and Healthy Ageing; CT, controls; DNAmAge, DNA methylation age; EEAA, extrinsic epigenetic age acceleration (Hannum measurement); EAH, epigenetic age (Horvath); EAHa, epigenetic age (Hannum); FU, follow-up; IEAAH, intrinsic epigenetic age acceleration (Horvath); IEAAHa, intrinsic epigenetic age acceleration (Hannum); NS, not shown; OATS, Older Australian Twin Study; SCS, Sydney Centenarian Study; SSC, semi-super centenarians; V90+, Vitality 90+; YFS, Young Finns Study
  2. *All includes all five measures of interest to this review, including AAH, AAHa, IEAAH, IEAAHa, and EEAA