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Table 1 Characteristics of infants and mothers

From: A comparison of DNA methylation in newborn blood samples from infants with and without orofacial clefts

  Control CLO CPO CLP
Infants 436 92 84 132
 Sex, n (%)
  Female 198 (45) 41 (45) 47 (56) 37 (28)
  Male 238 (55) 51 (55) 37 (44) 95 (72)
 Birth weight, kg 3.6 ± 0.6 3.4 ± 0.7 3.5 ± 0.6 3.6 ± 0.6
 Gestational age, days 277.7 ± 11.6 274.8 ± 14.6 276.4 ± 13.8 278.6 ± 11.7
Mothers
 Age at delivery, years 29.1 ± 4.8 28.9 ± 4.6 29.2 ± 5.0 29.4 ± 5.4
 Active smokera, n (%)
  No 316 (72) 47 (51) 55 (65) 78 (59)
  Yes 120 (28) 45 (49) 29 (35) 54 (41)
 Alcohol useb, n (%)
  0 292 (66) 52 (56) 56 (66) 80 (61)
  1–3 73 (17) 19 (21) 14 (17) 28 (21)
  4–6 26 (6) 6 (7) 8 (10) 8 (6)
  ≥ 7 42 (10) 12 (13) 6 (7) 14 (11)
  Missing 3 (1) 3 (3) 0 (0) 2 (1)
 BMI (kg/m2) 23.5 ± 3.9 23.5 ± 3.7 23.7 ± 4.8 23.3 ± 4.1
 Folic acid supplement, μgc,d, n (%)
  0 261 (60) 59 (65) 47 (56) 94 (71)
  1–399 90 (21) 17 (18) 19 (23) 24 (18)
  ≥ 400 85 (19) 16 (17) 18 (21) 14 (11)
 Dietary folate, μg, n (%)
  0–171 110 (25) 28 (31) 31 (37) 41 (31)
  172–214 96 (22) 21 (23) 21 (25) 36 (27)
  215–264 112 (26) 16 (17) 9 (11) 21 (16)
  ≥ 265 96 (22) 16 (17) 20 (24) 25 (19)
  Missing 22 (5) 11 (12) 3 (3) 9 (7)
 Multivitaminsd, n (%)
  No 277 (64) 65 (71) 50 (60) 96 (73)
  Yes 159 (36) 27 (29) 34 (40) 36 (27)
 Education, n (%)
  Less than high school 45 (10) 20 (22) 9 (11) 24 (18)
  High school and above 391 (90) 72 (78) 75 (89) 108 (82)
  1. aDuring the first trimester
  2. bTotal number of drinks during the first trimester
  3. cAny intake of folic acid supplements (either alone or with multivitamins)
  4. dDuring month prior to pregnancy and first 2 months of pregnancy