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Table 4 Effects of Epi-drugs on autoimmune disorders discussed in this review

From: The emerging role of epigenetics in human autoimmune disorders

Autoimmune disorder Epi-drug Chemical structure Target specificity Autoimmune pathways involved Ref.
SLE, SSc, SS Azacytidine
FDA approved, 2004
DNMTi LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18)
ITGAL, IL-6, Wnt pathway, SFRP-1, Dickkoft-1, KRT19, cytokeratin-19 protein
[56, 103, 121]
SLE Procainamide DNMT1i CD70, LFA-1, IL-6 [56, 59]
SLE Hydralazine DNMTi CD70 and other costimulatory proteins [56, 59]
SLE, T1D Trichostatin A (TSA) Pan HDACi Acid nuclear transport proteins, cytoskeleton proteins,
IFN-γ production, transcription activity of Tbx21 in T lymphocytes
[67, 159]
SLE Vorinostat
FDA approved, 2006
Pan HDACi Acid nuclear transport proteins, cytoskeleton proteins [67]
RA Givinostat (ITF2357) Pan
Arthritic components, T cells [86]
RA Largazole Class I HDACi ICAM-1, VCAM-1, MMP2, TNFα, p38, AKT pathway [89]
RA Romidepsin
(FK228, Depsipeptide)
FDA approved, 2009
Class I
TNFα, IL-1β, p16LNK4a, p21 (WAF1/Cip1) [84]
RA MI192 HDAC2/3 inhibitor IL6 [81]