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Table 1 Most relevant autoimmune diseases with known autoantigen targets

From: The emerging role of epigenetics in human autoimmune disorders

Systemic autoimmune diseases
 Disease Organ Autoantigens Mechanism of damage Worldwide prevalence (%) Ref.
 Rheumatoid arthritis Joints, lung, heart, etc. IgG, filaggrin, fibrin etc. T cell in joint/antibody 0.8 [33,34,35, 72,73,74]
 Systemic lupus Skin, joints, kidneys, brain, lungs, heart, others Nuclear antigens (DNA, histones, ribonucleoproteins), others Antibody 0.1 [33,34,35, 49, 50]
 Polymyositis/dermatomyositis Skeletal muscle (predominant), lungs, heart, joints, others Muscle antigens, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, other nuclear antigens T cell/antibody < 0.01 [33,34,35,36, 95]
 Systemic sclerosis Lungs, river, kidneys, heart, skin, etc. Dermal fibroblast antigens, fibrillarin-1, metalloproteinases, etc. Antibody 0.3 [33,34,35, 94, 95]
 Sjogren’s syndrome Connective tissue, salivary gland, lungs, bowel, etc. Nuclear antigens, carbonic anhydrase I (CA-I), profiling T cell/Antibody 0.1–0.6 [33,34,35, 115, 116]
Organ-specific autoimmune diseases
 Disease Organ Autoantigens Mechanism of damage Prevalence (%) Ref.
 Thyroiditis (autoimmune) Thyroid Thyroglobulin, thyroid peroxidase T cell/antibody 1.0–2.0 [33, 35, 130,131,132,133,134]
 Gastritis Stomach H+/K+ ATPase, intrinsic factor T cell/antibody 1–2 in > 60 years old [33, 35]
 Celiac disease Small bowel Transglutaminase T cell/antibody 0.2–1.1 [33, 35]
 Graves’ disease Thyroid Thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor Antibody 0.2–1.1 [33, 35, 130, 131]
 Vitiligo Melanocytes Tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-2 T cell/antibody 0.4 [33, 35]
 Type 1 diabetes Pancreas β cells Insulin, glutamic acid decarboxylase T cell 0.2–0.4 [33, 35, 149,150,151,152]
 Multiple sclerosis Brain, spinal cord Myelin basic protein, proteolipid protein T cell 0.01–0.15 [33, 35]
 Hepatitis (autoimmune) Liver Hepatocyte antigens (cytochrome P450) T cell/antibody < 0.01 [33, 35]
 Myasthenia gravis Muscle Acetylcholine receptor Antibody < 0.01 [33, 35]
 Primary biliary cirrhosis Liver bile ducts 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase complexes T cell/antibody < 0.01 [33, 35]
 Pemphigus Skin Desmogleins Antibody < 0.01–> 3.0 [33, 35]