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Table 1 Summary of respiratory function-specific epigenetic changes in the offspring categorised by exposure

From: Epigenetic impacts of maternal tobacco and e-vapour exposure on the offspring lung

Epigenetic changes induced by MTS
 Altered global DNA methylation Whole blood, cord blood, placenta [89,90,91,92,93]
 Genes associated with foetal growth—LINE-1, AluYb8, IGF2DMR, Igf1R, Igf2—differentially methylated Placenta, cord WBC, cord blood, murine lung [95, 102, 103, 109, 110]
 COPD candidate gene in GWAS, DPP10, hypomethylated Foetal lung [104,105,106]
 Genes associated with detoxification of tobacco smoke, CYP1A1 and AHRR, show altered methylation Placenta, cord blood [91, 107]
 miRNA involved in transcription of Igf1 upregulated Murine lung [86]
Epigenetic changes induced by METS
IL-4 and IL-13 hypomethylated at promoter region Murine lung [118]
 miR-155-5p, miR-21-3p and miR-18a-5p positively correlate with Th2 cytokines Murine lung [118]
Epigenetic changes induced by MEV
 Global DNA hypermethylation Murine lung [130]