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Table 1 General and specific characteristics of study participants and relations with maternal blood adiponectin at delivery

From: Alterations of adiponectin gene expression and DNA methylation in adipose tissues and blood cells are associated with gestational diabetes and neonatal outcome

  NGT GDM P value* Spearman’s r vs. MB adiponectin
r (P value*)
n 30 25   
Maternal
 Age (years) 32.5 ± 1.0 32.4 ± 0.9 0.919 0.17 (0.210)
 Ethnic origin—n (%)    1.000 n.a.
  European 20 (66.7) 16 (64.0)   
  Non-European 10 (33.3) 9 (36.0)   
 Socio-economic status—n (%)    0.215 n.a.
  Lower SES category 21 (84.0) 20 (66.7)   
  Higher SES category 4 (16.0) 10 (33.3)   
 Smoking in pregnancy (any)—n (%) 7 (23.3) 3 (12.0) 0.318 n.a.
 Nulliparous—n (%) 4 (13.3) 4 (16.0) 1.000 n.a.
 Height (cm) 167.0 ± 1.2 164.6 ± 1.3 0.246 0.23 (0.100)
 Prepregnancy weight (kg) 73.7 ± 3.9 77.7 ± 3.8 0.257 − 0.22 (0.114)
 Prepregnancy BMI (kg/m2) 26.4 ± 1.3 28.6 ± 1.3 0.105 − 0.31 (0.021)
 Total GWG (kg) 17.2 ± 1.2 14.4 ± 1.4 0.127 0.03 (0.848)
 Net GWG (kg) 13.9 ± 1.2 9.9 ± 1.4 0.028 0.14 (0.363)
 BMI at delivery (kg/m2) 32.5 ± 1.5 34.0 ± 1.2 0.124 − 0.31 (0.023)
Blood glucose at oGTT (mg/dL)
 Fasting 79.5 ± 1.7 99.0 ± 5.4 < 0.001 − 0.26 (0.086)
 1 h 120.9 ± 6.3 207.0 ± 7.2 < 0.001 − 0.30 (0.041)
 2 h 90.3 ± 4.2 161.4 ± 9.7 < 0.001 − 0.18 (0.243)
 Area under the curve (mg/dL h) 205.8 ± 8.2 337.3 ± 13.5 < 0.001 − 0.28 (0.058)
 Gestational age at delivery (weeks) 38.3 ± 0.1 37.8 ± 0.2 0.028 0.03 (0.841)
 Mode of delivery—n (%)    1.000 n.a.
  Primary cesarean section 9 (30.0) 7 (28.0)   
  Repeat cesarean section 21 (70.0) 18 (72.0)   
Maternal fasting plasma levels at delivery
 Adiponectin (μg/mL) 9.9 ± 0.8 6.7 ± 0.5 0.002 n.a.
 Glucose (mg/dL) 72.5 ± 2.0 85.0 ± 1.2 < 0.001 − 0.37 (0.007)
 Insulin (μU/mL) 22.3 ± 2.7 40.1 ± 8.2 0.217 − 0.33 (0.014)
 HOMA-IR 3.6 ± 0.3 8.3 ± 1.7 0.037 − 0.36 (0.009)
 C-peptide (ng/mL) 2.0 ± 0.2 4.9 ± 0.7 < 0.001 − 0.53 (< 0.001)
 Leptin (ng/mL) 28.9 ± 3.5 18.0 ± 2.6 0.017 0.04 (0.772)
 Triglycerides (mmol/L) 2.4 ± 0.1 2.3 ± 0.1 0.554 0.11 (0.413)
Birth outcome/newborn
 Female sex—n (%) 18 (60.0) 11 (44.0) 0.285 n.a.
 Placental weight (g) 658.7 ± 28.4 612.5 ± 37.8 0.337 − 0.15 (0.328)
 Birth weight (g) 3368 ± 87 3578 ± 82 0.038 − 0.22 (0.113)
 Birth length (cm) 51.1 ± 0.5 50.9 ± 0.3 0.890 − 0.03 (0.858)
 Relative birth weight (g/cm) 65.8 ± 1.3 70.3 ± 1.5 0.022 − 0.23 (0.098)
 Macrosomia—n (%) 3 (10.0) 4 (16.0) 0.689 n.a.
 LGA—n (%) 3 (10.0) 9 (36.0) 0.026 n.a.
 Hypoglycemia—n (%) 1 (3.6) 6 (24.0) 0.043 n.a.
Cord blood plasma levels
 Adiponectin (μg/mL) 25.8 ± 1.6 28.5 ± 2.4 0.488 0.18 (0.182)
 Glucose (mg/dL) 61.6 ± 2.0 72.0 ± 1.9 0.001 − 0.33 (0.015)
 Insulin (μU/mL) 19.2 ± 2.0 26.9 ± 2.9 0.042 − 0.13 (0.366)
 HOMA-IR 3.1 ± 0.4 5.0 ± 0.6 0.003 − 0.22 (0.117)
 C-peptide (ng/mL) 1.0 ± 0.1 1.6 ± 0.1 < 0.001 − 0.31 (0.023)
 Leptin (ng/mL) 10.8 ± 1.7 15.2 ± 2.6 0.247 − 0.21 (0.130)
 Triglycerides (mmol/L) 1.1 ± 0.1 1.8 ± 0.1 < 0.001 −0.40 (0.003)
  1. Data are means ± SEM or n (%)
  2. NGT normal glucose tolerance, GDM gestational diabetes mellitus, MB maternal blood, n.a. not applicable, SES socio-economic status, BMI body mass index, GWG gestational weight gain, oGTT oral glucose tolerance test, HOMA-IR homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, LGA large-for-gestational age newborn
  3. *Statistical significant (P value < 0.05)
  4. SES was categorized as previously described [36]
  5. Continued to be significantly different between the groups after adjustment for prepregnancy BMI (P = 0.006) and BMI at delivery (P = 0.004)