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Fig. 2 | Clinical Epigenetics

Fig. 2

From: Alterations of adiponectin gene expression and DNA methylation in adipose tissues and blood cells are associated with gestational diabetes and neonatal outcome

Fig. 2

CpG site-specific DNA methylation analyses at the adiponectin gene locus in adipose tissues and blood cells from mothers with NGT vs. GDM and their offspring. Schematic illustration of the adiponectin (ADIPOQ) gene locus, including characterized transcription factor binding sites (e.g., SRE, PPRE, C/EBP), and analyzed DNA methylation assays (R1-R3) (a). Percent DNA methylation is shown for each individual CpG site (numbering follows 5′ to 3′), analyzed per assay (R1–R3) for subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT; b), visceral adipose tissue (VAT; c), maternal blood (MB; d), and cord blood (CB; e) in the normal glucose tolerant (NGT; open boxes; n = 30) vs. gestational diabetes mellitus group (GDM; red boxes; n = 22–25). Group comparisons in cord blood samples were adjusted for newborn sex. Box-whisker plots show the minimum and maximum values. Pearson’s correlation coefficients (R) were calculated to determine the relationships between DNA methylation of significant CpG sites and respective ADIPOQ mRNA levels in VAT across the whole cohort (f, g). Gene expression of ADIPOQ was normalized to peptidylprolyl isomerase A (PPIA). NGT, open circles; GDM, red circles. AU, arbitrary units. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001

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