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Table 1 The known tumor-related functions of MAGE family

From: Epigenetic regulation of MAGE family in human cancer progression-DNA methylation, histone modification, and non-coding RNAs

Type Subtype Gene name Highly expressed tumor type Biological functions
MAGE-I MAGE-A MAGE-A1 Melanoma; gastric cancer; endometrial cancer; esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; head and neck cancer Activating p-C-JUN directly or through ERK-MAPK pathways; Repressing transcription by binding to SKIP and recruiting HDAC1
MAGE-A2 Glioma; breast cancer Degradation of P53, MDM2, MDM4; Increasing ER-dependent signaling
MAGE-A3 Non-small-cell lung cancer; hepatocellular carcinoma Degradation of P53, AMPKα1; Enhancing TRIM28-dependent degradation of FBP1
MAGE-A4 Hepatocellular carcinoma; lung cancer Inactivate the oncoprotein gankyrin
MAGE-A5 Head and neck cancer; non-small-cell lung cancer Not well characterized
MAGE-A6 Breast, colon, and lung cancer Degradation of P53, AMPKα1
MAGE-A7 Non-small-cell lung cancer Not well characterized
MAGE-A8 Bladder cancer Not well characterized
MAGE-A9 Head and neck cancer; hepatocellular carcinoma; esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; breast, colorectal, lung, bladder cancer Not well characterized
MAGE-A10 Breast cancer; stomach cancer; melanoma; esophageal and head and neck squamous carcinoma; bladder, lung, hepatocellular carcinoma Not well characterized
MAGE-A11 Breast cancer; esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; head and neck cancer; non-small cell lung cancer; prostate cancer Increasing Skp2-mediated degradation of cyclin A and p130; Decreasing Skp2-mediated degradation of E2F1 and Skp2 self-ubiquitination; Increasing the AR transcriptional activity
MAGE-A12 Prostatic carcinoma and colorectal cancer; melanoma, bladder, lung, esophageal carcinoma; head and neck cancer Promoting the ubiquitination of p21
MAGE-B MAGE-B1 Hepatocellular carcinoma Not well characterized
MAGE-B2 Hepatocellular carcinoma Not well characterized
MAGE-B3 Colorectal cancer Not well characterized
MAGE-B4–18 Not well characterized Not well characterized
MAGE-C MAGE-C1 Cutaneous melanoma; breast, lung cancer Not well characterized
MAGE-C2 Hepatocellular carcinoma; breast, lung cancer; melanoma; gastrointestinal stromal tumors Enhancing TRIM28-dependent degradation of FBP1; Inhibiting degradation of cyclinE; Increasing KAP1-Ser824 phosphorylation
MAGE-C3–7 Not well characterized Not well characterized
MAGE-II MAGE-D MAGE-D1 Breast cancer Not well characterized
MAGE-D2 Melanoma; gastric, colorectal cancer; hepatocellular carcinoma Suppressing TRAIL-induced apoptosis
MAGE-D3 Not well characterized Not well characterized
MAGE-D4 Glioma; hepatocellular carcinoma
Colorectal, esophageal, lung cancer
Not well characterized
MAGE-E MAGE-E1 Glioma Not well characterized
MAGE-E2–3 Not well characterized Not well characterized
MAGE-F MAGE-F1 Colorectal, ovarian, breast, cervical cancer; melanoma and leukemia Not well characterized
MAGE-G MAGE-G1 Not well characterized Not well characterized
MAGE-H MAGE-H1 Breast cancer; colorectal cancer Upregulating mir-200a/b expression via association with p73
MAGE-L2 MAGE-L2 Not well characterized Not well characterized
NECDIN NECDIN Melanoma, prostate and breast cancer; leukemia; urothelial carcinoma Repression in a STAT3-dependent manner