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Table 1 Characteristics of the sample

From: The epigenetic clock and pubertal, neuroendocrine, psychiatric, and cognitive outcomes in adolescents

Child characteristics at birth: N Mean/N SD/% Range
 Sex (boys) 239 116 48.5  
 Length of gestation (weeks) 239 40.0 1.3 35.6–42.4
 Birth weight (g) 239 3571 472 1890–4995
 Birth length (cm) 239 50.3 1.9 43.0–55.0
 Birth order 239    
  First   136 56.9  
  Second or later   103 43.1  
Child characteristics in adolescence:
 Chronological age (years) 239 12.4 0.5 11.1–13.2
 DNA methylation age (years) 239 12.1 3.1 5.4–22.5
 Weight (kg) 238 48.7 10.8 23.2–91.1
 Weight-for-age (SD) 238 0.3 1.0 − 3.6 – 3.0
 Height (cm) 238 156.2 7.5 134.5–177.0
 Height-for-age (SD) 238 0.2 1.0 − 2.7 – 2.5
 Body mass index (kg/m2) 238 19.8 3.44 12.8–34.5
 Body-mass-index-for-age (SD) 238 0.3 1.0 − 3.1 – 2.7
 Target height (SD) 238 173.4 7.6 153.9–191.7
 Mid-parental target height (SD) minus height-for-age (SD) 238 0.5 1.0 − 1.9 – 3.5
Tanner Staging Questionnaire
  Pubic hair development 233    
   I   50 21.5  
   II   83 35.6  
   III   71 30.5  
   IV   29 12.4  
  Breast/genitalia development 234    
   I   18 7.7  
   II   81 34.6  
   III   83 35.5  
   IV   52 22.2  
Pubertal development scale 236    
 No development   139 58.9  
 Development barely begun   74 31.4  
 Development definitely under way   23 9.7  
Diurnal salivary cortisol
 ln(upon awakening) 218 1.7 0.6 − 1.7 – 3.6
 ln(awakening response) 218 0.4 0.7 − 0.9 – 6.3
 ln(Nadir) 218 − 0.9 0.9 − 2.3 – 1.8
 ln(response to dexamethasone suppression test) 213 0.4 0.8 −v5.2 – 3.0
Psychiatric problems (> 82nd percentile borderline clinically significant problems) 222    
 Total behavior problems   38 17.1  
 Internalizing problems   18 8.1  
 Externalizing problems   25 11.3  
Intelligence quotient, estimated (M = 100; SD = 15)*
 General 235 105.8 14.8 57–140
 Verbal 236 111.4 17.2 57–153
 Performance 237 100.9 19.7 42–141
Maternal characteristics:
 Age at delivery (years) 239 30.4 4.4 20.0–43.0
 Weight at delivery (kg) 237 63.4 9.9 45.0–98.0
 Height (cm) 239 166.8 5.5 151.0–180.0
 Body mass index at delivery (kg/m2) 237 22.8 3.5 16.5–36.0
 Mode of delivery 239    
  Vaginal   214 89.5  
  Cesarean   25 10.5  
Alcohol consumption during pregnancy 239    
  No   199 83.3  
  Yes   40 16.7  
Smoking during pregnancy 239    
  No   217 90.8  
  Yes   22 9.2  
Consumption of glycyrrhizin in licorice during pregnancy 239    
  Low (0–249 mg/week)   174 72.8  
  Medium (250–499 mg/week)   33 13.8  
  High (≥ 500 mg/week)   32 13.4  
Age at menarche (years) 228    
  Mothers of girls 120 12.69 1.39 9.0–16.0
  Mothers of boys 108 12.70 1.19 10.0–16.0
Paternal/parental characteristics:
 Paternal height (cm) 236 180.07 6.38 157.00–200.00
 Highest educational level of either parent at child’s adolescence follow-up 239    
  Secondary or less   25 10.5  
  Vocational   59 24.7  
  University degree   155 64.9  
  1. Note: *3, 3, and 7 children had estimated general, verbal, and performance intelligence quotient below 70 because of difficulties in visual processing