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Table 2 Adjusted results of the association between DNA methylation at birth and birth weight for gestational age z scores, BMI z scores at age 1 and age 3

From: DNA methylation of imprinted genes at birth is associated with child weight status at birth, 1 year, and 3 years

  Birth weight for gestational age WFL age 1 BMI age 3
Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls
β (95% CI) β (95% CI) β (95% CI) β (95% CI) β (95% CI) β (95% CI)
MEG3
 Low 0.09 (− 0.23, 0.40) 0.10 (− 0.22, 0.42) − 0.67 (− 1.23, − 0.11) − 0.16 (− 0.70, 0.38) 0.11 (− 0.58, 0.80) − 0.21 (− 1.04, 0.61)
 High − 0.05 (− 0.35, 0.26) − 0.26 (− 0.56, 0.04) − 0.79 (− 1.37, − 0.21) − 0.08 (− 0.58, 0.42) 0.05 (− 0.64, 0.74) − 0.29 (− 1.10, 0.52)
PLAGL1
 Low 0.20 (− 0.08, 0.49) 0.24 (− 0.06, 0.54) 0.02 (− 0.50, 0.53) − 0.72** (− 1.19, − 0.25) 0.12 (− 0.53, 0.76) 0.39 (− 1.40, 1.19)
 High 0.13 (− 0.16, 0.43) 0.14 (− 0.16, 0.44) 0.52 (− 0.003, 1.04) − 0.81** (− 1.29, − 0.33) 0.31 (− 0.32, 0.93) − 0.07 (− 0.81, 0.67)
PEG10
 Low − 0.10 (− 0.39, 0.20) 0.31 (− 0.003, 0.63) 0.20 (− 0.31, 0.71) − 0.03 (− 0.59, 0.52) 0.32 (− 0.32, 0.95) 0.14 (− 0.70, 0.97)
 High 0.01 (− 0.31, 0.32) 0.09 (− 0.24, 0.43) 0.84** (0.34, 1.33) 0.03 (− 0.51, 0.58) 1.03** (0.37, 1.69) 0.04 (− 0.82, 0.89)
IGF2
 Low − 0.15 (− 0.46, 0.16) 0.40 (0.08, 0.72) − 0.63* (− 1.16, − 0.10) 0.24 (− 0.28, 0.75) − 0.12 (− 0.76, 0.52) − 0.10 (− 0.87, 0.66)
 High 0.06 (− 0.26, 0.38) 0.21 (− 0.11, 0.53) − 0.21 (− 0.73, 0.31) − 0.03 (− 0.53, 0.48) − 0.14 (− 0.80, 0.52) − 0.61 (− 1.39, 0.18)
MEST
 Low 0.04 (− 0.27, 0.34) 0.21 (− 0.12, 0.34) 0.07 (− 0.47, 0.61) − 0.99** (− 1.59, − 0.39) 0.26 (− 0.43, 0.94) − 0.41 (− 1.28, 0.45)
 High − 0.04 (− 0.26, 0.38) 0.38 (0.04, 0.72) 0.32 (− 0.23, 0.86) − 1.03** (− 1.60, − 0.45) 0.08 (− 0.63, 0.79) − 1.11* (− 1.98, − 0.24)
MEG3-IG
 Low − 0.01 (− 0.31, 0.34) − 0.07 (− 0.41, 0.27) 0.09 (− 0.47, 0.65) − 0.56 (− 1.13, 0.02) − 0.24(− 0.92, 0.45) − 0.62 (− 1.44, 0.21)
 High − 0.31 (− 0.66, 0.05) − 0.08 (− 0.42, 0.26) − 0.44 (− 1.00, 0.12) − 0.30 (− 0.83, 0.23) − 0.10 (− 0.87, 0.67) − 0.80 (− 1.68, 0.08)
H19
 Low 0.29 (−0.04, 0.62) 0.04 (− 0.26, 0.35) 0.26 (− 0.29, 0.80) − 0.13 (− 0.63, 0.37) 0.24 (− 0.48, 0.96) 0.09 (− 0.73, 0.90)
 High 0.03 (− 0.30, 0.36) 0.22 (− 0.09, 0.54) 0.29 (− 0.25, 0.82) − 0.51 (− 1.02, 0.01) 0.39 (− 0.30, 1.09) 0.34 (− 0.50, 1.19)
NNAT
 Low − 0.06 (− 0.40, 0.28) − 0.07 (− 0.41, 0.28) − 0.28 (− 0.89, 0.34) 0.24 (− 0.25, 0.72) − 0.26 (− 1.00, 0.48) 1.52** (0.69, 2.34)
 High − 0.07 (− 0.42, 0.27) 0.16 (− 0.18, 0.50) − 0.10 (− 0.69, 0.48) 0.26 (− 0.26, 0.79) − 0.14 (− 0.82, 0.54) 0.55 (− 0.27, 1.37)
PEG3
 Low 0.09 (− 0.19, 0.38) − 0.09 (− 0.41, 0.23) − 0.15 (− 0.72, 0.42) − 0.29 (− 0.84, 0.26) 0.41 (− 0.23, 1.05) − 0.95* (− 1.80, − 0.10)
 High 0.06 (− 0.25, 0.38) − 0.15 (− 0.48, 0.18) − 0.20 (− 0.76, 0.37) − 0.48 (− 1.02, 0.06) − 0.18 (− 0.91, 0.55) − 0.46 (− 1.35, 0.44)
  1. Adjusted for maternal and paternal race, maternal education, maternal smoking, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal age, and gestational age. DNA methylation measured in tertiles, comparing low and high methylation to moderate methylation
  2. *p < 0.05. **Statistically significant after Bonferroni correction (p < 0.006)