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Table 1 Plasma BCAT1, IKZK1 and overall ctDNA positivity for different clinicopathological findings of patients with invasive colorectal cancer (n = 187)

From: Circulating tumour DNA for monitoring colorectal cancer—a prospective cohort study to assess relationship to tissue methylation, cancer characteristics and surgical resection

Factor Category N Methylated BCAT1 DNA Methylated IKZF1 DNA ctDNA positivity (combined BCAT1/IKZF1)
    No. positive % positive (95% CI1) P 2 No. positive % positive (95% CI1) P 2 No. positive % positive (95% CI1) P 2
Age < 65 years 67 29 43.3 (31.2–56.0) 0.154 28 41.8 (29.8–54.5) 0.332 39 58.2 (45.5–70.2) 0.421
≥ 65 years 120 65 54.2 (44.8–63.3)   59 49.2 (39.9–58.4)   77 64.2 (54.9–72.7)  
Gender Female 75 34 45.3 (33.8–57.3) 0.270 31 41.3 (30.1–53.3) 0.244 42 56.0 (44.1–67.5) 0.164
Male 112 60 53.6 (43.9–63.0)   56 50.0 (40.4–59.6)   74 66.1 (56.5–74.7)  
Stage I 40 4 10.0 (2.8–23.7) < 0.001 2 5.0 (0.6–16.9) < 0.001 6 15.0 (5.7–29.8) < 0.001
II 54 29 53.7 (39.6–67.4)   25 46.3 (32.6–60.4)   35 64.8 (50.6–77.3)  
III 63 37 58.7 (45.6–71.0)   36 57.1 (44.0–69.5)   47 74.6 (62.1–84.7)  
IV 30 24 80.0 (61.4–92.3)   24 80.0 (61.4–92.3)   28 93.3 (77.9–99.2)  
T stage T1 26 2 7.7 (0.9–22.1) < 0.001 1 3.8 (0.1–19.6) < 0.001 2 7.7 (0.9–25.1) < 0.001
T2 23 6 26.1 (10.2–48.4)   3 13.0 (2.8–33.6)   8 34.8 (16.4–57.3)  
T3 96 55 57.3 (46.8–67.3)   56 58.3 (47.8–68.3)   69 71.9 (61.8–80.6)  
T4 34 24 70.6 (52.5–84.9)   21 61.8 (43.6–77.8)   29 85.3 (68.9–95.0)  
Unknown 8 7 87.5 (47.3–99.7)   6 75.0 (34.9–96.8)   8 100.0 (63.1–100.0)  
N stage N0 100 41 41.0 (31.3–51.3) 0.024 36 36.0 (26.6–46.2) 0.007 50 50.0 (39.8–60.2) 0.001
N1/N2 73 44 60.3 (48.1–71.5)   44 60.3 (48.1–71.5)   56 76.7 (65.4–85.8)  
Unknown 14 9 64.3 (35.1–87.2)   7 50.0 (23.0–77.0)   10 71.4 (41.9–91.6)  
M stage M0 147 66 44.9 (36.7–53.3) 0.002 58 39.5 (31.5–47.8) < 0.001 82 55.8 (47.4–64.0) 0.001
M1 30 24 80.0 (61.4–92.3)   24 80.0 (61.4–92.3)   28 93.3 (77.9–99.2)  
Unknown 10 4 40.0 (12.2–73.8)   5 50.0 (18.7–81.3)   6 60.0 (26.2–87.8)  
Size (mm) < 20 mm 14 2 14.3 (1.8–42.8) < 0.001 2 14.3 (1.8–42.8) < 0.001 3 21.4 (4.7–50.8) < 0.001
20–50 mm 100 44 44.0 (34.1–54.3)   37 37.0 (27.6–47.2)   56 56.0 (45.7–65.9)  
> 50 mm 65 44 67.7 (54.9–78.8)   45 69.2 (56.6–80.1)   52 80.0 (68.2–88.9)  
Unknown 8 4 50.0 (15.7–84.3)   3 37.5 (8.5–75.5)   5 62.5 (24.5–91.5)  
Location Proximal 75 28 37.3 (26.4–49.3) 0.011 31 41.3 (30.1–53.3) 0.306 37 49.3 (37.6–61.1) 0.011
Distal 111 65 58.6 (48.8–67.8)   56 50.5 (40.8–60.1)   78 70.3 (60.9–78.6)  
Unknown 1 1 100.0 (2.5–100.0)   0 0.0 (0.0–97.5)   1   
Lymphatic invasion Yes 38 24 63.2 (46.0–78.2) 0.014 25 65.8 (48.6–80.4) 0.001 30 78.9 (62.7–90.4) 0.002
No 121 49 40.5 (31.7–49.8)   44 36.4 (27.8–45.6)   61 50.4 (41.2–59.6)  
Perinueural invasion Yes 20 9 45.0 (23.1–68.5) 0.860 10 50.0 (27.2–72.8) 0.541 15 75.0 (50.9–91.3) 0.104
No 138 65 47.1 (38.6–55.8)   59 42.8 (34.4–51.4)   77 55.8 (47.1–64.2)  
Extramural vascular invasion Yes 9 6 66.7 (29.9–92.5) 0.313 7 77.8 (40.0–97.2) 0.054 8 88.9 (51.8–99.7) 0.089
No 178 88 49.4 (41.9–57.0)   80 44.9 (37.5–52.6)   108 60.7 (53.1–67.9)  
Intramural vascular invasion Yes 3 2 66.7 (9.4–99.2) 0.567 2 66.7 (9.4–99.2) 0.481 2 66.7 (9.4–99.2) 0.868
No 184 92 50.0 (42.6–57.4)   85 46.2 (38.8–53.7)   114 62.0 (54.5–69.0)  
Differentiation Poor 34 21 61.8 (43.6–77.8) 0.241 20 58.8 (40.7–75.4) 0.124 25 73.5 (55.6–87.1) 0.160
Moderate 118 54 45.8 (36.6–55.2)   48 40.7 (31.7–50.1)   67 56.8 (47.3–65.9)  
Well 14 6 42.9 (17.7–71.1)   6 42.9 (17.7–71.1)   7 50.0 (23.0–77.0)  
Unknown 21 13 61.9 (38.4–81.9)   13 61.9 (38.4–81.9)   17 81.0 (58.1–94.6)  
  1. 1Confidence interval
  2. 2P value, Pearson’s chi-square test