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Table 1 Clinicopathological and demographic characteristics of the study population classified by the study phase

From: Urine cell-based DNA methylation classifier for monitoring bladder cancer

  Discovery phase Validation phase
Training set Testing set
  N bladder cancer (%) N R-PFBC (%)
Gender
 Male 86 (77) 135 (78)
 Female 25 (23) 38 (22)
Age
 Mean 72 68
 Range 39–98 26–99
Stage and grade
 Tis 7 (6) 13 (8)
 Ta LG 26 (23) 61 (35)
 Ta HG 11 (10) 20 12)
 T1 LG 20 (18) 35 (20)
 T1 HG 22 (20) 44 (25)
 > T2 LG 1 (1)
 > T2 HG 24 (22)
Subtotals 111 173
  N control (%)  
Gender
 Male 29 (51)
 Female 28 (49)
Age
 Mean 60
 Range 22–82
Urinary condition
 BPH 11 (19)
 Urolithiasis 13 (23)
 Incontinence 2 (4)
 Benign bladder disease 1 (2)
 Urinary tract infections 12 (21)
 Non-urological diseases 18 (32)
Subtotals 57
   N NR-PFBC (%)
Gender
 Male 217 (76)
 Female 68 (24)
Age
 Mean 69
 Range 26–92
Stage and grade previous TURBT
 Tis 21 (7)
 Ta LG 100 (35)
 Ta HG 53 (19)
 T1 LG 22 (8)
 T1 HG 82 (29)
 T2 HG 3 (1)
 Tx LG 2 (1)
 Tx HG 2 (1)
Subtotals 285
Total 168 458
  1. LG low-grade, HG high-grade, TURBT transurethral resection bladder tumor, BPH benign prostate hyperplasia, CIS/Tis carcinoma in situ, BC bladder cancer, R-PFBC recurrent patients in follow-up for bladder cancer, NR-PFBC non-recurrent patients in follow-up for bladder cancer