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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of subjects at the Untrained, Trained, and Detrained state

From: Endurance training remodels sperm-borne small RNA expression and methylation at neurological gene hotspots

A
 Cohort used for DNA CpG analyses, n = 12
  Untrained Trained Detrained
  Age – years 22 (18 a 27) 23 (18 a 27) 23 (19 a 28)
  Weight - kg 79.0 (63.7 a 105.8) 77.5 (63.7 a 102.2) 79.1 (62.6 a 105.3)
  Body mass index - kg/m2 22.8 (19.5 a 27.6) 22.9 (19.6 a 26.7) 23.1 (19.2 a 27.4)
  Waist – cm 87 (79 a 90) 79* (73 a 87) 80.8# (72.6 a 92.6)
  Hip – cm 93 (88 a 104) 89* (82 a 99) 90# (82 a 101)
  Waist/Hip 0.92 (0.88 a 0.99) 0.88 (0.83 a 0.96) 0.91 (0.86 a 0.97)
  VO2 2780 (3585 a 4469) 4440* (3319 a 5793) 3971 (2763 a 4766)
  VO2/kg 44.1 (39.7 a 53.9) 56.2* (48.4 a 65.2) 51.2 (38.3 a 55.5)
  Glucose (fasting) – mmol/l 4.8 (4.3 a 5.4) 4.8 (4.4 a 5.7) 4.7 (4.3 a 5.3)
  Insulin – pmol/l 55 (31 a 106) 51 (25 a 117) 57 (27 a 80)
  HOMA-IR 1.85 (1.11 a 4.03) 1.9 (0.9 a 4.9) 1.9 (0.9 a 2.9)
  HbA1c - % 32 (26 a 38) 33 (28 a 36) 31# (23 a 36)
  Plasma cholesterol (total) – mmol/l 4.2 (3.4 a 5.6) 4.0 (3.0 a 4.8) 4.3 (3.4 a 5.4)
  Low density lipoprotein – mmol/l 2.3 (1.9 a 3.3) 2.4 (1.8 a 3.0) 2.6 (1.8 a 3.4)
  High density lipoprotein – mmol/l 1.4 (1.0 a 1.7) 1.4 (1.1 a 1.6) 1.3 (1.0 a 1.8)
  Triglyceride – mmol/l 1.0 (0.6 a 1.5) 0.9 (0.6 a 1.7) 0.9 (0.5 a 1.8)
  C-reactive protein – mg/l 1.0 (1.0 a 3.0) 1.0 (1.0 a 1.0) 1.0 (1.0 a 2.5)
  Leukocytes – ×  109/l 6.0 (3.3 a 7.1) 5.4 (4.3 a 6.7) 5.4 (4.1 a 6.5)
B
 Cohort used for sRNA analyses, n = 6    
  Untrained, n = 6 Trained, n = 6 Detrained, n = 6
  Age – years 23 (18.1 a 26.9) 23 (18.1 a 26.9) 24 (19 a 27)
  Weight - kg 79.8 (64.4 a 88.5) 79.8 (64.3 a 86.2) 81.2 (63.0 a 89.7)
  Body mass index - kg/m2 22.8 (19.8 a 24.8) 22.7 (19.8 a 24.1) 22.9 (19.4 a 24.0)
  Waist – cm 88.5 (78.6 a 95.2) 79.2* (72.4 a 88) 80.5 (72.4 a 93.9)
  Hip – cm 92 (88.2 a 99.8) 90.2 (85.4 a 97.2) 91 (83 a 99)
  Waist/Hip 0.9 (0.9 a 1) 0.9 (0.8 a 0.9) 0.91 (0.83 a 0.95)
  VO2 3736 (2766 a 4460) 4221 (3459 a 5167) 3830 (2766 a 4621)
  VO2/kg 45 (40.1 a 53.8) 52.6 (48.1 a 63.5) 50.7 (37.4 a 55.5)
  Glucose (fasting) – mmol/l 4.8 (4.3 a 5.4) 4.8 (4.6 a 5.8) 4.7 (4.4 a 5.3)
  Insulin – pmol/l 80 (54.4 a 107.5) 56 (41.4 a 121.4) 58 (45 a 81)
  HOMA-IR 2.9 (1.8 a 4.1) 2 (1.5 a 5.2) 2.0 (1.7 a 2.9)
  HbA1c - % 33.5 (29.2 a 38.8) 33.5 (28.1 a 36) 30# (26 a 37)
  Plasma cholesterol (total) – mmol/l 4.6 (3.9 a 5.8) 4.1 (3.6 a 4.8) 5.1 (4.3 a 5.8)
  Low density lipoprotein – mmol/l 2.6 (2.1 a 3.6) 2.5 (1.9 a 3.2) 1.4 (1.0 a 1.9)
  High density lipoprotein – mmol/l 1.3 (1 a 1.5) 1.4 (1 a 1.5) 2.9 (2.4 a 4.1)
  Triglyceride – mmol/l 1.2 (0.9 a 1.6) 1.1 (0.7 a 1.7) 1.1 (0.8 a 1.9)
  C-reactive protein – mg/l 1 (1 a 2.8) 1 (1 a 1) 1.0 (1.0 a 2.9)
  Leukocytes – × 109/l 6.1 (3.4 a 8) 6.1 (4.2 a 7.7) 5.4 (4.4 a 11.2)
  1. A Subjects studied for DNA methylation. B Subjects studied for sRNA expression. HOMA-IR: Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance. Results are medians with 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles. Differences between time points were determined using a paired t test or a Wilcoxon signed rank (Insulin and HOMA-IR in both tables and Triglyceride in Table 1a) and are Holm-Bonferroni corrected. Age and C-reactive protein were not tested. *P < 0.05 Untrained vs. Trained, #P < 0.05 Untrained vs. Detrained