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Table 4 Summary of biological processes represented by the downstream markers of the epigenetic events explored in the study in the tumor specimens of LC patients with and without COPD

From: Profile of epigenetic mechanisms in lung tumors of patients with underlying chronic respiratory conditions

Downstream markers LC patients
Non-COPD COPD
Tumor suppressor genes
P53, PTEN, PDCD4, TPM-1, k-RAS
CDKN2A
Sirtuin-1
= =
Cell proliferation and invasion (through ↓ SPRY-2, MIF and TOM-1)
Apoptosis (through ↓ ETS-1)
Cell differentiation (through ↓ ETS-1 and FGFRL-1)
Epithelial mesenchymal transition (through ↓ ZEB2 and SNAIL-1)
Cell- mediated immunity (through ↓ MIF)
Angiogenesis (through ↑ angiopoietin-2 and ↓ EFNA-3)
Cell adhesion and migration (through ↓ CRK, TOM-1 and MARCKs)
  1. = there were no significant differences for the specific tumor markers between LC-COPD and LC patients without COPD