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Table 3 Association between DNA methylation levels at selected AXL CpG sites and risk of asthma and related symptoms in childhood in the primary study population (N = 246) and replication population (N = 1038)

From: Epigenetic regulation of AXL and risk of childhood asthma symptoms

  cg10564498 cg12722469 cg00360107
Primary study population Replication population Primary study population Replication population Primary study population Replication population
Distance to TSS (bp) − 455 − 455 − 55 − 55 6826 6826
Mean methylation (%) 26.71 19.60 17.05 11.32 6.68 4.35
  OR p OR p OR p OR p OR p OR p
Ever MD-diagnosed asthma
 Overall 1.02 0.28 1.00 0.86 1.05 0.24 0.99 0.72 0.73 0.04 0.99 0.86
 By sex
  Boys 1.04 0.11 1.01 0.60 1.08 0.24 0.99 0.73 0.72 0.16 1.02 0.76
  Girls 0.99 0.80 0.98 0.39 1.03 0.59 0.99 0.87 0.73 0.13 0.96 0.54
  Interaction p value 0.24 0.32 0.59 0.92 0.94 0.51
Ever wheezing
 Overall 1.03 0.21 0.97 0.13 1.07 0.09 0.95 0.05 0.78 0.07 0.90 0.04
 By sex
  Boys 0.98 0.59 0.92 0.006 1.07 0.38 0.92 0.01 1.05 0.87 0.92 0.20
  Girls 1.07 0.04 1.02 0.44 1.08 0.14 0.99 0.86 0.69 0.04 0.89 0.10
  Interaction p value 0.09 0.01 0.94 0.10 0.20 0.73
Wheezing in the previous 12 months
 Overall 1.02 0.60 0.96 0.03 0.99 0.93 0.93 0.007 0.55 0.04 0.95 0.34
 By sex
  Boys 0.92 0.13 0.92 0.004 0.82 0.10 0.92 0.02 0.74 0.37 0.90 0.12
  Girls 1.15 0.02 1.00 0.94 1.11 0.22 0.95 0.16 0.40 0.03 1.03 0.68
  Interaction p value 0.009 0.06 0.04 0.58 0.23 0.19
Bronchitic symptoms in the previous 12 months
 Overall 0.99 0.66 0.95 0.02 1.06 0.19 0.95 0.05 0.75 0.07 0.93 0.15
 By sex
  Boys 0.96 0.24 0.95 0.04 1.02 0.74 0.94 0.07 0.80 0.31 0.93 0.24
  Girls 1.03 0.46 0.97 0.25 1.09 0.14 0.97 0.37 0.70 0.12 0.93 0.40
  Interaction p value 0.18 0.60 0.47 0.60 0.67 0.96
  1. The primary study population (N = 246) is adjusted for child’s age, sex, ethnicity, methylation plate and city of residence at study recruitment; additionally adjusted for ever had MD-diagnosed asthma for wheezing and bronchitic outcomes
  2. The replication population (N = 1038) is adjusted for child’s age, sex, ethnicity and city of residence at study recruitment; additionally adjusted for ever had MD-diagnosed asthma for wheezing and bronchitic outcomes
  3. Odds ratios are presented for an increase in 1% of DNA methylation level at birth. For all comparisons, the reference group is children not having the corresponding outcome. Significant p values (< 0.05) are marked in italics
  4. TSS transcription start site