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Table 1 Characteristics of mother–child pairs (n = 305)

From: Regulating role of fetal thyroid hormones on placental mitochondrial DNA methylation: epidemiological evidence from the ENVIRONAGE birth cohort study

Characteristics Mean (10th–90th percentile) or frequency (%)
Mother
 Age, years 29.1 (23–36)
 Pre-pregnancy BMI, kg/m2 24.1 (19.7–29.7)
 Net weight gain, kg 14.7 (7.5–22.0)
 Maternal educationa
  Low 37 (12.1%)
  Middle 107 (35.1%)
  High 161 (52.8%)
 Self-reported smoking habit
  Never smoker 198 (64.9%)
  Cessation before pregnancy 55 (18.0%)
  Smoker during pregnancy 52 (17.1%)
 Parity
  1 158 (51.8%)
  2 112 (36.7%)
  ≥3 35 (11.5%)
Newborn
 Sex
  Male 151 (49.5%)
 Ethnicityb
  European-Caucasian 269 (88.2%)
 Gestational age, weeks 39.2 (38–41)
 Season at delivery
  Winter (Dec–Mar) 80 (26.2%)
  Spring (Mar–Jun) 89 (29.2%)
  Summer (Jun–Sep) 60 (19.7%)
  Autumn (Sep–Dec) 76 (24.9%)
 Apgar score after 5 min
  7 or 8 20 (6.6%)
  9 90 (29.5%)
  10 195 (63.9%)
 Cord plasma insulin, pmol/L* 46.4 (15.3–85.4)
 Birth weight, g 3421 (2880–3985)
  1. aMother’s education: low (no high school diploma), middle (high school diploma), high (college or university diploma)
  2. bBased on the native country of the newborn’s grandparents. European-Caucasian when two or more grandparents were European, or non-European when at least three grandparents were of non-European origin *Geometric mean