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Table 3 Among children with the upper tertile of exposure to BC, physical activity is associated with reduced lung function, whereas children with less BC exposure experience opposite effects

From: Physical activity, black carbon exposure, and DNA methylation in the FOXP3 promoter

  Difference in methylation in active vs. non-active children
β estimate (95% confidence interval)
Overall sample (n = 135) Upper tertile BCa
(n = 33)
Lower 2/3 BCa
(n = 102)
p interaction
FEV1 2.72 (−1.14, 6.59) −7.87 (−15.33, −0.42) 4.60 (0.21, 8.99) 0.09
FVC 1.25 (−2.25, 4.75) −6.91 (−13.70, −0.13) 2.70 (−1.30, 6.70) 0.31
FEV1/FVC 1.36 (−0.62, 3.33) −1.09 (−5.03, 2.5) 1.90 (−0.49, 4.28) NA
FEF25−75% 8.07 (0.40, 15.74) −6.59 (−23.0, 9.80) 9.60 (0.60, 18.60) 0.27
  1. β estimate represents the effect size or the difference in percent methylation when comparing active children to non-active children (reference). Models adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, BMI Z-score, asthma, atopy, secondhand smoke exposure, heating season, and BC concentration (only for overall sample model). Italicized values represent p value ≤0.05. P interaction represents the p value for the interaction term between physical activity and BC
  2. aDichotomized at the upper tertile, 1790 ng/m3