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Table 1 Participant characteristics for the n = 135 children included in this study

From: Physical activity, black carbon exposure, and DNA methylation in the FOXP3 promoter

  Non-active
(n = 58)
Active
(n = 77)
p valuea
Age in years, median (range) 12.7 (10.5–14.0) 12.2 (9.2–14.0) <0.01
Males, n (%) 32 (55%) 35 (45%) 0.26
Race/ethnicity, n (%)
Hispanic
African American
42 (72%)
16 (28%)
46 (60%)
31 (40%)
0.13
Asthmab, n (%) 30 (52%) 45 (58%) 0.44
FVC % predicted, mean (SD) 85% (12.1) 86% (10.5) 0.92
FEV1 % predicted, mean (SD) 84% (13.0) 85% (11.6) 0.72
FEV1/FVC % predicted, mean (SD) 87% (7.5) 87% (5.3) 0.52
FEF25–75% % predicted, mean (SD) 83% (24.2) 86% (21.7) 0.36
Total IgE ≥80 IU/mL 31 (53%) 38 (49%) 0.64
BMI ≥85th percentile, n (%) 31 (53%) 39 (51%) 0.75
Secondhand smokec, n (%) 3 (5%) 14 (18%) 0.04
Heating seasond, n (%) 25 (43%) 44 (57%) 0.11
Black carbon, GM (SD) 1070 (1.69) 1190 (1.78) 0.25
High BCe, n (%) 26 (45%) 37 (48%) 0.71
  1. FVC forced vital capacity, FVE 1 forced expiratory volume in 1 s, FEF 25–75% forced expiratory flow at 25–75%, IgE Immunoglobulin E, BMI body mass index, BC black carbon
  2. aChi-square test for categorical variables and t test for continuous variables (age and black carbon)
  3. bDetermined by a physician at age 5–12 years using a priori standardized criteria
  4. cDetermined by responding yes to the question “In the last 2 weeks have you been exposed to tobacco smoke in the home.” missing n = 1 from the active group
  5. dObservation period took place during NYC’s cold weather heating season (October to April)
  6. eDichotomized at the median, 1210 ng/m3
  7. Italicised values in the final column represent a p-value < 0.05