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Table 1 Participant characteristics

From: Distinct DNA methylation profiles in subtypes of orofacial cleft

  CLO (n = 49) CLP (n = 49) CPO (n = 49) P value*
Age in months at sample collection (95% CI) 4.1 (3.8, 4.4) 5.5 (4.7, 6.3) 11.2 (10.3, 12.0) 3.9 × 10−27
Epigenetic agea in months at sample collection (95% CI) 5.4 (4.2, 6.5) 8.7 (7.1, 10.3) 13.7 (11.9, 15.5) 5.0 × 10−11
Age accelerationb in months (95% CI) −0.3 (−1.5, 0.8) 0.8 (−0.1, 1.8) −0.5 (−2.0, 1.0) 0.23
Female (%) 19 (39%) (1 missing) 8 (16%) 23 (47%) 0.004
White ethnicity (%) 25 (93%) (22 missing) 27 (93%) (20 missing) 23 (88%) (23 missing) 0.80
Maternal age at conception (95% CI) 30.9 (29.4, 32.4) 29.4 (27.9, 30.9) 31.1 (29.8, 32.4) 0.21
Paternal age at conception (95% CI) 34.1 (32.2, 35.9) 32.7 (30.8, 34.7) 35.3 (33.4, 37.1) 0.23
Methylation-predicted tobacco exposure score (95% CI) 0.004 (−0.1, 0.1) −0.1 (−0.2, 0.1) 0.1 (−0.1, 0.2) 0.361
Self-reported maternal smoking around conception (%) 0 (0%) (33 missing) 4 (36%) (38 missing) 7 (44%) (33 missing) 0.01
Maternal education: university degree or higher (%) 13 (48%) (22 missing) 13 (48%) (22 missing) 15 (58%) (23 missing) 0.73
Maternal occupation: non-manual work 10 (38%) (23 missing) 13 (50%) (23 missing) 14 (61%) (26 missing) 0.29
Parity > =1 12 (43%) (21 missing) 19 (66%) (20 missing) 11 (46%) (25 missing) 0.18
  1. *P values were calculated using either ANOVA or chi-squared/Fishers tests
  2. aEpigenetic age is age predicted using DNA methylation as described in Horvath et al. [20]
  3. bAge acceleration refers to the residuals from a linear regression of epigenetic age on actual age as described in Horvath et al. [20]