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Table 1 Participant characteristics

From: Distinct DNA methylation profiles in subtypes of orofacial cleft

  CLO (n = 49) CLP (n = 49) CPO (n = 49) P value*
Age in months at sample collection (95% CI) 4.1 (3.8, 4.4) 5.5 (4.7, 6.3) 11.2 (10.3, 12.0) 3.9 × 10−27
Epigenetic agea in months at sample collection (95% CI) 5.4 (4.2, 6.5) 8.7 (7.1, 10.3) 13.7 (11.9, 15.5) 5.0 × 10−11
Age accelerationb in months (95% CI) −0.3 (−1.5, 0.8) 0.8 (−0.1, 1.8) −0.5 (−2.0, 1.0) 0.23
Female (%) 19 (39%)
(1 missing)
8 (16%) 23 (47%) 0.004
White ethnicity (%) 25 (93%)
(22 missing)
27 (93%)
(20 missing)
23 (88%)
(23 missing)
0.80
Maternal age at conception (95% CI) 30.9 (29.4, 32.4) 29.4 (27.9, 30.9) 31.1 (29.8, 32.4) 0.21
Paternal age at conception (95% CI) 34.1 (32.2, 35.9) 32.7 (30.8, 34.7) 35.3 (33.4, 37.1) 0.23
Methylation-predicted tobacco exposure score (95% CI) 0.004 (−0.1, 0.1) −0.1 (−0.2, 0.1) 0.1 (−0.1, 0.2) 0.361
Self-reported maternal smoking around conception (%) 0 (0%)
(33 missing)
4 (36%)
(38 missing)
7 (44%)
(33 missing)
0.01
Maternal education: university degree or higher (%) 13 (48%)
(22 missing)
13 (48%)
(22 missing)
15 (58%)
(23 missing)
0.73
Maternal occupation: non-manual work 10 (38%)
(23 missing)
13 (50%)
(23 missing)
14 (61%)
(26 missing)
0.29
Parity > =1 12 (43%)
(21 missing)
19 (66%)
(20 missing)
11 (46%)
(25 missing)
0.18
  1. *P values were calculated using either ANOVA or chi-squared/Fishers tests
  2. aEpigenetic age is age predicted using DNA methylation as described in Horvath et al. [20]
  3. bAge acceleration refers to the residuals from a linear regression of epigenetic age on actual age as described in Horvath et al. [20]