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Fig. 1 | Clinical Epigenetics

Fig. 1

From: Circulating unmethylated insulin DNA as a potential non-invasive biomarker of beta cell death in type 1 Diabetes: a review and future prospect

Fig. 1

Circulating unmethylated INS DNA can be used to trace β cell death. The CpG sites of the INS gene are predominantly unmethylated in β cells, which is vastly different from those in other tissues. Autoimmune destruction conducted by immune cells can lead to direct damage of β cells. Unmethylated INS DNA is then released into the circulation. cfDNA can be extracted from blood samples. Following bisulfite treatment of cfDNA, unmethylated INS DNA molecules can be detected and quantified by a number of technologies including methylation-specific PCR(MSP), droplet digital PCR(ddPCR), and sequencing. Apart from the early diagnosis of T1D, the detection of circulating unmethylated INS DNA has the potential for monitoring transplantation rejection and response to therapy

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