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Table 1 Clinical parameters of analyzed cohorts and subgroups

From: Epigenetic signatures of gestational diabetes mellitus on cord blood methylation

Array cohort A Controls D-GDM I-GDM p value
 Sample size (n) 18   20  
 Gestational week 39.1 ± 0.9   39.2 ± 1.3 0.346
 Preterm birth (n) 0   1 1
 Maternal BMI (kg/m2) 25.2 ± 3.1   26.3 ± 3.5 0.303
 Maternal height (cm) 164.4 ± 6.7   167.9 ± 7.6 0.141
 Weight before pregnancy (kg) 69.8 ± 10.8   75.8 ± 12.9 0.133
 Weight before birth (kg) 82.0 ± 11.3   88.6 ± 13.3 0.118
 HbA1c (%) n.d.   5.8 ± 0.6 n.d.
 Diabetes before pregnancya 0   1 TDM1, 1 TDM2 0.488
 Maternal age (years) 29.6 ± 2.8   31.0 ± 4.6 0.259
 Parityb 7 PP, 6 BP, 5 MP   5 PP, 13 BP, 2 MP 0.965
 Spontaneous abortion rate 0.50 ± 0.71   0.15 ± 0.37 0.186
 Nicotine consumptionc n.d.   17 NS, 3 S n.d.
 Maternal comorbitidiesd 0   2 T 0.488
 Mode of birthe 12 UVB, 6 CS   15 UVB, 2 VVB, 3 CS 0.239
 Sex of child 8 ♂, 10 ♀   11 ♂, 9 ♀ 0.746
 Birth weight (g) 3283.6 ± 420.7   3673.3 ± 515.9 0.016
 Weight for gestational agef 18 AGA   18 AGA, 2 LGA 0.613
 Placenta weight (g) 509.4 ± 105.8   566.2 ± 127.0 0.372
 Blood pH 7.32 ± 0.05   7.28 ± 0.06 0.019
Array cohort B Controls D-GDM I-GDM p value
 Sample size (n) 46 24 24  
 Gestational week 39.5 ± 1.4 39.1 ± 1.3 38.7 ± 1.5 0.024
 Preterm birth (n) 2 1 1 1
 Maternal BMI (kg/m2) 25.3 ± 6.4 25.1 ± 4.1 29.9 ± 7.3 0.018
 Maternal height (cm) 166.3 ± 9.4 165.3 ± 6.4 165.9 ± 5.9 0.581
 Weight before pregnancy (kg) 71.7 ± 17.9 69.0 ± 10.8 83.6 ± 20.6 0.034
 Weight before birth (kg) 86.0 ± 7.7 80.2 ± 10.6 96.7 ± 20.4 0.009
 HbA1c (%) n.d. 5.5 ± 0.4 5.9 ± 0.6 0.020
 Diabetes before pregnancya 0 0 3 TDM1, 1 TDM2 0.007
 Maternal age (years) 30.3 ± 5.8 31.7 ± 6.1 31.3 ± 4.6 0.526
 Parityb 28 PP, 10 BP, 8 MP 13 PP, 9 BP, 2 MP 13 PP, 9 BP, 2 MP 0.491
 Spontaneous abortion rate 0.46 ± 0.98 0.29 ± 1.04 0.25 ± 0.61 0.370
 Nicotine consumptionc 41 NS, 5 S 23 NS, 1 S 22 NS, 2 S 0.637
 Maternal comorbitidiesd 1 H, 1 T 1 P 1 H 1
 Mode of birthe 34 UVB, 3 VVB, 9 CS 14 UVB, 1 VVB, 9 CS 18 UVB, 5 CS 0.262
 Sex of child 22 ♂, 24 ♀ 12 ♂, 12 ♀ 12 ♂, 12 ♀ 0.978
 Birth weight (g) 3391.2 ± 575.9 3396.9 ± 558.4 3465 ± 478.4 0.960
 Weight for gestational agef 2 SGA, 44 AGA 23 AGA, 1 LGA 23 AGA, 1 LGA 0.183
 Placenta weight (g) n.d 538.4 ± 111.0 552.1 ± 128.0 0.900
 Blood pH 7.29 ± 0.10 7.30 ± 0.06 7.26 ± 0.10 0.368
Pyrosequencing cohort Controls D-GDM I-GDM p value
 Sample size (n) 56 64 61  
 Gestational week 39.5 ± 1.4 39.0 ± 1.4 38.8 ± 1.4 0.007
 Preterm birth (n) 3 3 3 1
 Maternal BMI (kg/m2) 25.2 ± 5.9 25.7 ± 5.0 31.5 ± 8.1 <0.001
 Maternal height (cm) 166.6 ± 9.1 165.4 ± 6.2 166.6 ± 6.5 0.294
 Weight before pregnancy (kg) 71.8 ± 16.4 71.1 ± 14.6 89.3 ± 23.4 <0.001
 Weight before birth (kg) 85.8 ± 16.5 84.2 ± 15.2 101.2 ± 24.0 <0.001
 HbA1c (%) n.d. 5.5 ± 0.3 5.8 ± 0.4 <0.001
 Diabetes before pregnancya 0 0 5 TDM1, 3 TDM2 <0.001
 Maternal age (years) 30.4 ± 5.8 31.3 ± 6.1 32.2 ± 5.3 0.243
 Parityb 33 PP, 13 BP, 10 MP 35 PP, 22 BP, 7 MP 25 PP, 23 BP, 12 MP 0.203
 Spontaneous abortion rate 0.52 ± 1.13 0.31 ± 0.77 0.27 ± 0.55 0.846
 Nicotine consumptionc 47 NS, 9 S 57 NS, 7 S 55 NS, 7 S 0.549
 Maternal comorbitidiesd 1 H, 2 T 1 H, 2 P, 1 T 3 H, 1 T 1
 Mode of birthe 42 UVB, 3 VVB, 11 CS 35 UVB, 1 VVB, 23 CS 43 UVB, 4 VVB, 17 CS 0.273
 Sex of child 29 ♂, 27 ♀ 25 ♂, 38 ♀ 34 ♂, 26 ♀ 0.152
 Birth weight (g) 3332.2 ± 550.9 3311.6 ± 504.1 3540.0 ± 473.3 0.051
 Weight for gestational agef 3 SGA, 53 AGA 63 AGA, 1 LGA 56 AGA, 2 LGA 0.064
 Placenta weight (g) n.d. 517.8 ± 99.3 556.3 ± 127.1 0.155
 Blood pH 7.29 ± 0.09 7.30 ± 0.06 7.28 ± 0.08 0.593
  1. n.d. no data
  2. aTDM1 = type 1 diabetes mellitus, TDM2 = type 2 diabetes mellitus
  3. bPP = primiparous, BP = biparous, MP = multiparous
  4. cNS = non-smoker, S = smoker
  5. dH = hypertension, P = preeclampsia, T = thyroid dysfunction
  6. eCS = Cesarean section, UVB = unassisted vaginal birth, VVB = ventouse-assisted vaginal birth
  7. fSGA = small for gestational age (<3th percentile), AGA = appropriate for gestational age (3rd–97th percentile), LGA = large for gestational age (>97th percentile)