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Table 2 Results from univariate and multivariate survival analyses (Cox proportional hazard models)

From: Promoter hypermethylation of SHOX2 and SEPT9 is a potential biomarker for minimally invasive diagnosis in adenocarcinomas of the biliary tract

  Number of patients Hazard ratio [95% CI] p value (Wald test)
Univariate analysis
 Tumor location (GBC vs. CC) 71 0.9 [0.5–1.8] 0.83
 Gender (Male vs. female) 71 1.4 [0.8–2.5] 0.22
 Age at diagnosis (≤60 vs. >60 years) 71 1.1 [0.6–2.0] 0.72
 Tumor grade (G1, G2 vs. G3) 71 1.6 [0.9–2.7] 0.13
 Tumor stage (T1, T2 vs. T3, T4) 71 1.0 [0.6–1.8] 0.94
 Lymph node status (N1, N2 vs. N0) 48 2.2 [1.1–4.5] 0.031*
 Venous invasion (V0 vs. V1) 61 1.3 [0.7–2.5] 0.42
 Lymphatic invasion (L1 vs. L0) 54 2.4 [1.3–4.6] 0.007*
 Perineural invasion (Pn0 vs. Pn1) 52 1.3 [0.6–2.5] 0.50
 Distant metastases (M0 vs. M1) 71 2.4 [0.9–6.1] 0.08
 UICC stage (UICC I, II vs. UICC III, IV) 51 1.0 [0.5–2.0] 0.91
 Surgical margin (R1 vs. R0) 71 3.5 [1.8–6.7] <0.001*
SHOX2 methylationa   55 1.0 [1.0–1.0] 0.52
SEPT9 methylationa   55 1.0 [1.0–1.0] 0.78
SHOX2 methylation (SHOX2− vs. SHOX2+) 55 1.3 [0.6–2.6] 0.51
SEPT9 methylation (SEPT9− vs. SEPT9+) 55 1.1 [0.6–2.4] 0.72
Multivariate analysis
 Lymph node status (N0 vs. N1, N2)   1.5 [0.6–3.5] 0.36
 Lymphatic invasion (L0 vs. L1) 34 2.1 [0.9–5.3] 0.11
 Surgical margin (R0 vs. R1)   3.8 [1.2–12.2] 0.026*
  1. SHOX2 and SEPT9 DNA methylation levels were analyzed as continuous and dichotomized variables. p values refer to the Wald test
  2. *p < 0.05
  3. aContinuous variable