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Table 2 Results

From: Antidepressant medication during pregnancy and epigenetic changes in umbilical cord blood: a systematic review

  Candidate gene studies Array studies
Study Oberlander et al. (2008) [22] Soubry et al. (2011) [26] Devlin et al. (2010) [25] Schroeder et al.c,d,e (2012) [27] (27 K) Non et al.b,e (2014) [28] (450 K) Gurnot et al.c,d,e (2015) [29] (27 K)
Gene CPG sites β-coefficient (p value) β-coefficient (p value) Mean methylation % ± SE Average methylation change % (p value) β-coefficient (95 % CI) β-coefficient (SRI-exposed/non-exposed)*
TNFRSF21 cg22464186 - - - −1.9 (2.8 x 10−6) NS NS
CHRNA2 cg02953306   - - 3 (3.1 x 10−6) NS NS
CYP2E1 cg13315147 - - - NS NS 0.30/0.06
EVA1 cg18399703 - - - NS NS 0.06/0.04
SLMAP cg11743795 - - - NS NS 0.03/0.02
NR3C1 CpG1 (D (HAM-D)) 0.317 (0.0011) - - - NS  
  CpG2 (D (HAM-D)) (2nd/3rd trimester) 0.253 (0.066)/ 0.371 (0.003) - - - - -
  CpG3 (D (HAM-D)) 0.284 (0.023) - - - - -
  cg00629244 (D) - - -   −0.006 (−0.01,−0.003)a  
BDNF Unspecific - NS NS NS NS
IGF2 IGF2 DMR (D/M) - 0.72(0.5)/−0.47(0.71) NS NS NS
IGF2 H19 DMR (D/M) Race interaction (M) - 0.25 (0.84)/0.54(0.7) 9.18 (0.002) - NS NS NS
SLC6A4 CpG 6 (D) - - 4.61 ± 2.1 - - -
  CpG 9 (D) - - 8.31 ± 3.2 - - -
  cg10901968 (M) - - - NS −0.007 (−0.01,-0.003)* NS
FKBP5 cg18726036 (D) - - - NS 0.009 (0.004, 0.01)a NS
  cg07061368 (M) - - - NS −0.03 (−0.05,-0.01)a NS
CRHR1 cg11731737 (D) - - - NS −0.005(−0.01,-0.002)a NS
  Unspecific - - - NS NS NS
NFKB1 Unspecific - - - NS NS NS
NFKB2 cg23606922 (D/M) - - - NS −0.007(−0.01,−0.003)*/−0.01(−0.02,-0.01)* NS
DNMT1 Unspecific - - - NS NS NS
DNMT3a cg15843262 (M) - - - NS 0.008 (0.004,0.01)* NS
  Other CpG sites d - - - NS (6 sites of the 42)d 42 sites ass. with maternal depressiond NS (6 sites of the 42)d
  1. The β-coefficient represents difference in percent methylation in the exposed vs. the unexposed
  2. D Associated with maternal depression, M associated with maternal medication, HAM-D Hamilton depression scale
  3. NS tested and not found statistically significant (FDR-adj. p value >0.05). Reported by the specific studies
  4. -not tested
  5. *Significantly associated sites (p value <0.001).aMarginally significant sites.
  6. bThe Illumina HumanMethylation 450 BeadChip.cThe Ilumina HumanMethylation 27 BeadChip.
  7. dThe other significant (FDR-adj. p value <0.1) CpG sites consist of 42 sites found with the 450K from a range of other genes not investigated by any of the other studies and only associated to maternal depression but not the maternal use of antidepressant medication. Only 6 out of these 42 CpG sites were also investigated by the other 2 array studies and no association reported
  8. eThe 27K and 450K have tested several other CpG sites within the listed genes, but not found any statistically significant methylation differences