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Table 1 Description of two subsets of the ESTHER study, an epidemiological study of the elderly general population in Germany

From: Frailty is associated with the epigenetic clock but not with telomere length in a German cohort

Characteristic   Dataset 1 Dataset 2 p a
Total n 969 851  
Age in years μ (SD) 62.1 (6.5) 63.0 (6.7) 0.0078
Methylation age in years μ (SD) 61.7 (7.1) 64.6 (7.7) <0.0001
Age acceleration in yearsb μ (SD) −0.5 (5.0) 1.6 (5.3) <0.0001
Relative telomere length μ (SD) 1.22 (0.31) 1.03 (0.27) <0.0001
Frailty index (in %) μ (SD) 25.0 (14.7) 25.5 (15.1) 0.41
Sex
 Females n (%) 484 (50.0) 464 (54.5) 0.051
 Males n (%) 485 (50.1) 387 (45.5)  
Smoking behaviorc
 Never n (%) 455 (48.0) 371 (45.0) 0.38
 Former n (%) 320 (33.7) 284 (34.5)  
 Current n (%) 174 (18.3) 169 (20.5)  
Alcohol consumptionc
 None n (%) 300 (33.6) 260 (33.7) 0.76
 <20 g/d (women), <40 g/d (men) n (%) 524 (58.6) 458 (59.4)  
 20+ g/d (women), 40+ g/d (men) n (%) 70 (7.8) 53 (6.9)  
History of cancerc
 Self-report negative n (%) 882 (93.2) 742 (90.5) 0.034
 Self-report positive n (%) 64 (6.8) 78 (9.5)  
  1. Dataset 1, consecutively recruited subsample of the source study. Dataset 2, sampled in the context of a case-cohort study. For details, see text
  2. a Chi-square test for categorical variables, t test for continuous variables
  3. b Difference-based age acceleration, i.e., methylation age—chronological age
  4. c Missing values (dataset 1, dataset 2) in smoking (20, 27), alcohol consumption (75, 80), and history of cancer (23, 31)