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Fig. 6 | Clinical Epigenetics

Fig. 6

From: Development of 5‘ LTR DNA methylation of latent HIV-1 provirus in cell line models and in long-term-infected individuals

Fig. 6

5’ LTR and env methylation levels of the HIV-1 provirus in the latent reservoir of infected patients who were treated for up to 3 years. a Levels of HIV-1 5’ LTR methylation in patients who were treated for up to 3 years. Each diamond represents one patient. The time (months) spent undergoing therapy is depicted on the x-axis whereas the percentage of methylated CpGs in the HIV-1 5’ LTR in the latent reservoir of infected patients is depicted on the y-axis. The methylation levels are presented as a mean percentage of methylated CpGs in HIV-1 promoters. Temporal increase in 5‘LTR DNA methylation was statistically significant (p < 0.05) as determined by standard significance test in loglinear model. b Illustrative example of the latent HIV-1 provirus CpG methylation profile at the 5’ LTR sequence of patient no. 10. The methylation level is presented as a mean percentage of methylated CpGs (mCpGs) in HIV-1 promoters. An analysis of promoter molecules is shown as a linear array of open circles representing non-methylated CpG residues and closed circles representing methylated CpG residues. Each line represents one sequenced molecule of the 5’ LTR. The rectangle schematically represents the 5’ LTR region U3 with individually analyzed CpG dinucleotides and transcription factor binding sites. c Levels of HIV-1 env methylation in selected patients who were treated for up to 3 years. The methylation levels are presented as a mean percentage of methylated CpGs (mCpGs) in HIV-1 env region. An analysis of env molecules is shown as a linear array of open circles representing non-methylated CpG residues and closed circles representing methylated CpG residues. Each line represents one sequenced env molecule. The rectangle schematically represents the analyzed env region

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