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Table 3 Maternal B vitamins and 3-year weight gain by infant sex: Newborn Epigenetics STudy (N = 273)

From: Maternal B vitamins: effects on offspring weight and DNA methylation at genomically imprinted domains

   Infant sex
  All participants (N = 273) Male children (N-137) Female children (N = 136)
Maternal B vitamin β coefficient, standard error, p value
B12    
 ≤322.47 ng/L Reference Reference Reference
 322.48–446.04 ng/L −381.14, 732.87, 0.60 33.23, 1199.92, 0.98 −625.74, 891.01, 0.49
 446.05–575.51 ng/L −1395.75, 673.18, 0.04 −1010.30, 1086.31, 0.36 −1782.25,711.58, 0.02
 >575.51 ng/L −2203.03, 722.49, 0.003 −2154.17, 1224.31, 0.09 −1626.59, 837.17, 0.07
 p for interaction 0.6998
PLP    
 ≤3.76 nM/L Reference Reference Reference
 3.77–7.47 nM/L 448.65, 839.88, 0.60 1116.26, 1213.31,0.37 −1964.83, 1063.30, 0.08
 7.48–12.05 nM/L 694.16, 897.50, 0.44 1220.60, 1530.15, 0.43 −1778.70, 1006.86, 0.09
 >12.05 nM/L 1181.95, 866.33, 0.18 2943.29, 1365.99, 0.04 −1737.49, 936.33, 0.08
 p for interaction 0.1018
PA    
 ≤2.06 nM/L Reference Reference Reference
 2.07–3.21 nM/L −268.93, 891.83, 0.76 391.05, 1476.59, 0.79 −1041.07,938.43, 0.28
 3.22–5.93 nM/L −997.02, 778.44, 0.20 784.35, 1434.70, 0.59 −2307.87, 718.25, 0.005
 >5.93 nM/L −294.59, 826.98, 0.72 983.67, 1525.03, 0.52 −1334.04, 689.14, 0.07
 p for interaction 0.2046
Hcy    
 ≤4.40 umol/L Reference Reference Reference
 4.41–5.10 umol/L 227.32, 755.24, 0.76 −692.64, 1335.38, 0.61 63.93,715.18, 0.93
 5.11–6.00 umol/L 71.24,793.17, 0.93 −1992.29, 1505.14,0.20 730.08, 837.30, 0.40
 >6.00 umol/L −217.90,795.33, 0.79 −1256.44, 1479.32, 0.40 554.96, 878.78, 0.54
 p for interaction 0.7041
  1. Adjusted for gestational age at blood draw, maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index, household income, maternal race/ethnicity, breastfeeding, and caloric intake at age 3
  2. BMI body mass index, B 12 vitamin B12, PLP pyridoxal phosphate, PA 4-pyridoxic acid, Hcy homocysteine