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Table 1 Conceptuses and/or placentas in mice: resorption rate, weight, gene expression and/or DNA methylation of imprinted genes

From: The placenta: phenotypic and epigenetic modifications induced by Assisted Reproductive Technologies throughout pregnancy

Species GA study Control group Manipulation group RR Weight Gene expression Methylation References
F P F P F P  
Mouse E14 Blastocyst transfer SO, IVC M16 (1-cell=>blastocyst) = = NA = Igf2, Grb10, Grb7, H19 NA = H19 NA [73]
SO, IVC M16+FCS (1-cell=>blastocyst) NA H19, Igf2, Grb7 NA H19 NA
Grb10
Mouse E18 SO, blastocyst transfer SO, IVC (1-cell=>morula) 7 % O2, (morula=>blastocyst) 2 % O2, transfer = NA = Slc2a1, Slc2a3, Igf2, Igf2r, H19 NA NA [186]
SO, IVC (1-cell=>blastocyst) 7 % O2, transfer = = = NA = Slc2a1, Slc2a3, Igf2, Igf2r, H19 NA NA
SO, IVC (1-cell=>morula) 7 % O2, (morula=>blastocyst) 20 % O2, transfer = = = NA = Slc2a1, Slc2a3, Igf2, Igf2r, H19 NA NA
Mouse E12.5 SO, blastocyst transfer SO, IVF, IVC KSOM/AA, blastocyst transfer = = NA NA NA NA [4]
SO, IVF, IVC WM, blastocyst transfer NA NA NA NA
SO, IVF, IVC KSOM/AA, blastocyst transfer SO, IVF, IVC WM, blastocyst transfer = NA NA NA NA
Mouse E15.5 SO, blastocyst transfer SO, IVF, IVC KSOM/AA, blastocyst transfer NA = NA Slc7a3 NA NA [10]
= Igf2, H19, Glut1, Snat,1 Snat2, Snat4
Glut3
E18.5 SO, blastocyst transfer SO, IVF, IVC KSOM/AA, blastocyst transfer NA NA = Snat1, Slc7a3 NA NA
Igf2, H19, Glut1, Glut3, Snat2, Snat4
Mouse E9.5 In vivo fertilization IVC KSOM/AA (2-cells=>blastocyst) NA NA NA Monoallelic: H19, Snrpn Monoallelic: H19, Snrpn, Ascl2, Peg3 = H19, Snrpn = H19, Snrpn [69]
IVC WM (2-cells=>blastocyst) NA NA NA Monoallelic: H19, Snrpn Biallelic: H19, Snrpn, Ascl2, Peg3 = H19, Snrpn Partial LOM: H19, Snrpn
Mouse E9.5 In vivo fertilization SO, blastocyst transfer NA NA NA Monoallelic: H19, Cdkn1c, Kcnq1, Ascl2, Zim1, Snrpn, Kcnq1ot1, Peg3, Igf2, Mkrn3 Biallelic: H19 NA NA [72]
High levels of misexpression: at least 1/8 IG
Ascl2, = H19
Igf2
SO, IVC KSOM/AA (2-cells=>blastocyst), blastocyst transfer NA NA NA Monoallelic: H19, Cdkn1c, Kcnq1, Ascl2, Zim1, Kcnq1ot1, Peg3, Igf2 Biallelic: H19 NA NA
Ascl2, = H19
Igf2
Low levels of misexpression: Snrpn, Mkrn3
Mouse E9.5 In vivo fertilization SO NA NA NA Monoallelic: H19, Snrpn, Igf2, Kncq1ot1 Biallelic: H19, Snrpn NA = H19, Snrpn [79]
Monoallelic: Igf2, Kncq1ot1
= Igf2
Igf2
Blastocyst transfer SO, blastocyst transfer NA NA NA Monoallelic: H19, Snrpn, Igf2 Biallelic: H19 NA = H19, Snrpn
Monoallelic: Snrpn, Igf2
= Igf2 Igf2
Mouse E10.5 SO, blastocyst transfer SO, IVC (1-cell=>blastocyst) (M16 or sequential G1/G2), blastocyst transfer NA NA NA H19, Igf2, Zac1, Slc38a4, Cdkn1c, Gtl2, Rian, Dlk1, Nnat, Peg3 = Igf2, H19 = H19, Igf2, Igf2r, Dlk1-Dio3 [5]
= Igf2r, Grb10
Dnc, Gatm, Mest
SO, IVF, IVC (M16 or sequential G1/G2), blastocyst transfer NA NA NA H19, Igf2, Igf2r, Zac1, Slc38a4, Cdkn1c, Gtl2, Rian, Dlk1, Nnat, Peg3 = Igf2 = H19, Igf2, Igf2r, Dlk1-Dio3
= Grb10, Mest
Dnc, Gatm
Mouse E14 In vivo fertilization SO, IVF, IVC, blastocyst transfer NA NA NA ↓ Igf2, Igf2 LOM: H19 LOM: H19 [187]
H19 H19
SO, IVF, IVC, vitrifying/warming morula, blastocyst transfer NA NA NA Igf2, Igf2 LOM: H19 LOM: H19
H19
SO, IVF, IVC, blastocyst transfer SO, IVF, IVC, vitrifying/warming morula, blastocyst transfer NA NA NA Igf2, Igf2 LOM: H19 = H19
H19 H19
Mouse E10.5 In vivo fertilization SO, IVF, IVC KSOM/AA 5 % O2, morula/blastocyst transfer NA NA NA Monoallelic: Igf2, Cdkn1c, Snrpn, Kcnq1ot1 Biallelic: H19, Snrpn, Peg3, Cdkn1c = H19, Snrpn, Peg1, Kcnq1ot1, Dlk1/Gtl2, Peg3 = Snrpn, Kcnq1ot1, Peg1, Dlk1/Gtl2, Peg3 [74]
Biallelic: H19, Peg3 Monoallelic: Kcnq1ot1
H19
SO, IVF, IVC KSOM/AA 20 % O2, morula/blastocyst transfer NA NA NA Monoallelic: Igf2, Snrpn, Kcnq1ot1, Cdkn1c Biallelic: H19, Snrpn, Peg3, Cdkn1c, Kcnq1ot1 = H19, Snrpn, Peg1, Kcnq1ot1, Dlk1/Gtl2, Peg3 = Snrpn, Kcnq1ot1, Peg1, Dlk1/Gtl2
Biallelic: H19, Peg3
Peg3, H19
  1. E embryonic day, F foetus, FCS foetal calf serum, GA gestational age, ICSI intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection, IVC in vitro culture, IVF in vitro fertilization, IVPS in vitro produced with serum, KSOM/AA optimal potassium-modified, simplex optimized medium with amino acids, LOM loss of methylation, NA not analyzed, OVM oocyte in vitro maturation, RR resorption rate, P placenta, SO superovulation, SOF synthetic oviductal fluid, mSOF modified synthetic oviductal serum fluid medium without serum or coculture, WM Whitten’s medium, ↑: increased, ↓: decreased, =: no significant difference compared with control