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Fig. 1 | Clinical Epigenetics

Fig. 1

From: The placenta: phenotypic and epigenetic modifications induced by Assisted Reproductive Technologies throughout pregnancy

Fig. 1

ART can impair the dialogue between the endometrium and embryo and lead to suboptimal trophoblast invasion. Infertility per se could be responsible for suboptimal gametes, and several ART steps (such as superovulation and embryo culture) may also be responsible for suboptimal embryo development, both potentially leading to embryo development arrest. In addition, superovulation may impair endometrium receptivity. Later, the placentation may be suboptimal and cause miscarriage or placenta-related adverse outcomes. However, a smart dialogue between the foetus and placenta could bring adaptive responses through regulated epigenetic mechanisms leading to increased weight, cell proliferation, increased vessel density and increased transport capacity. At birth, epigenetic variations present in cord blood or placentas could either reflect persisting variations/defects or ongoing compensation at the time of birth

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