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Table 1 Overview of experimental in utero exposure models

From: Inter- and transgenerational epigenetic inheritance: evidence in asthma and COPD?

Exposure type Preconceptional exposure Prenatal exposure Postnatal challenge
Sidestream tobacco smoking (SS; ‘passive smoking’) SS [87,99] SS [85,87,89,91,99,100,126-133] SS [85,87,89,91,99,100,126-133], OVA [91,130]
Mainstream tobacco smoking (MS; ‘active smoking’) MS [78,86,90,102,103,134,135] MS [78,86,90,101-103,134,135] SS [86,134], A. fumigates [86], HDM [78], MS [103,135]
Active and passive tobacco smoking   MS + SS vs. SS [136]  
Surrogate for tobacco smoking Nicotine [137], nicotine (F1*) [9,80] Nicotine [79,138-142], nicotine (F1) [9,80] Nicotine [79], nicotine (F1*) [9,80]
Pollutants BPA [143], TDI or DNCB [144] BPA [143,145,146], DEP [147-149] DEP, TiO2, or carbon black [150], ROFA [151], ozone [152], UPM [153], FA [154] OVA [143,144,147,150,152-154], low- or high-fat diet [148], ozone [149]
Allergens OVA [77,93,96,97,105,155-157], peanut [92] OVA [77,96,155,158-160], OVA + Al(OH)3 OVA + PT, or OVA + CpG [161] OVA [77,93,96,105,156-160], OVA or Casein [155], OVA or BLG [97], OVA + Al(OH)3 [161], peanut [92]
Bacteria and bacterial compounds LPS [82] LPS [82,162,163], LPS + iNOS inhibitor [164], A. lwoffii F78 [165,166], L. rhamnosus [167] OVA [82,163-167], LPS, or OVA [162]
Fungi A. fumigates [83,108], M. anisopliae [168] A. fumigates [83], DEP + A. fumigates [169], M. anisopliae [168] A. fumigates [83,108], M. anisopliae [168]
Nutrition, stress, and other factors Methyl donor supplement [109], vitamin D3-deficient diet [170] Noise [169], methyl donor supplement [109], vitamin A-deficient diet [171], vitamin D3-deficient diet [170], vitamin D-deficient diet [172], FBZ [173] OVA [109,169], vitamin D3-deficient diet [170], vitamin D-deficient diet FBZ [172] and OVA [173]
  1. Studies investigating effects up to F2: [80,83,109]. Studies investigating effects up to F3: [9,145]. Studies using rhesus monkeys: [126] (all other studies mentioned use rodents). Not all studies relate to a lung phenotype. *Studies with F1 animals exposed via mothers milk and used for further breeding. OVA, ovalbumin; HDM, house dust mite extract; BPA, bisphenol A; TDI, toluol-2,4-diisocyanat; DNCB, dinitrochlorobenzene; DEP, diesel exhaust particles; ROFA, residual oil fly ash; UPM, urban particulate matter; FA, formaldehyde; PT, pertussis toxin; BLG, beta-lactoglobulin; LPS, lipopolysaccharide; FBZ, fenbendazol.