Chromosomal distribution and DNA methylation trends of the significant age-modified CpG sites. (A) Dot plot showing the chromosomal distribution of age-methylated CpGs (blue dots) and age-demethylated CpGs (red dots) in relation to the Bonferroni-corrected P value. For methylated genes: TTC22 = tetratricopeptide repeat domain 22; NES = nestin; NGEF = neuronal guanidine nucleotide exchange factor; SNED1 = sushi nidogen and EGF-like domains 1; FOXI2 = forkhead box I2; LAG3 = lymphocyte activation gene 3; CRYL1 = crystallin lambda 1; TEPP = testis prostate and placenta expressed; TSC2 = tuberous sclerosis 2; RHBDL3 = rhomboid, veinlet-like 3 (Drosophila); NFIX = nuclear factor I/X; TMC2: transmembrane channel-like 2; SOX10 = SRY-box 10. For demethylated genes: ATOH8 = atonal homolog 8; CLEC3B = C-type lectin domain family 3, member B, NRG2 = neuregulin 2; PTK7 = protein tyrosine kinase 7; ANKRD2 = ankyrin repeat domain 2; JRKL = JRK-like; NOD2 = nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2; ARID3A = AT-rich interactive domain 3A; ZMYND8 = zinc finger, MYND-type containing 8; TSPO = translocator protein (18 kDa); CLDN2 = claudin 2. An asterisk next to the gene symbol indicates that the age-modified CpG site has similar DNA methylation levels in sorted blood leukocytes of healthy adults. Genes in bold indicate that the annotated CpG site is embedded in an age-modified region. Detailed information on P values is presented in Additional file 1. (B) Time trends in DNA methylation (M value) for age-methylated sites (blue) and age-demethylated sites (red). M values above 1 represent that the site is methylated, and M values below −1 represent that the site is demethylated. A value of 0 is proportional to a beta value of 0.50. Each line represents a CpG site.