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Table 5 Studies of PAH exposure biomarkers and DNA methylation outcomes (3 studies available)

From: Environmental chemicals and DNA methylation in adults: a systematic review of the epidemiologic evidence

First author, year Design Population Size Men (%) a Age Range (yr) a Exposure assessment Exposure categories DNA methylation Assessment DNA methylation endpoint Association 95% Confidence Interval or p-value Data pre-processing and adjustment factors
Alegria-Torres, 2013 [118] CS San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Occupational population 39 100 42.5 (16 to 75) Urine Per μg/g increase Peripheral leukocytes Average % methylation    QC or CH assessment NR. Models adjusted for smoking status, usual alcohol drinking, current medication, age, and average number of cigarettes smoked.
1-Hydroxypyrene by HPLC Quantitative Pyrosequencing Difference
(Mean=0.18 μg/g creatinine) Specific   
Interleukin 12 −1.57 −2.9, −0.23
p53 −2.7 −5.46, 0.06
TNF-α −3.9 −8.28, 0.48
IFN-γ −0.43 −16.45, 15.59
IL-6 0.22 −9.19, 9.63
Global   
LINE-1 −0.49 −4.74, 3.76
Alu −0.55 −1.25, 0.16
Pavanello, 2009 [119] CS Poland 92 100 37 (20-59) Urine   Peripheral blood lymphocytes Average % methylation Difference   QC reported. CH assessment or adjustment for potential confounders NR. All participants were non-current smokers
1-pyrenol by HPLC-F Per μmol/mol creatinine increase Quantitative pyrosequencing   
Peripheral blood lymphocites Specific   
p53 −1.58 P < 0.001
p16 −0.01 P = 0.736
HIC1 −0.57 P = 0.059
IL-6 1.06 P = 0.012
Global 0.72 P = 0.01
LINE-1 0.13 P = 0.004
Alu   
Anti-BPDE–DNA by HPLC-F analysis of BP-tetrol-I-1 Per adducts /108 nucleotides increase Specific   
p53 −1.04 P < 0.001
p16 −0.02 P = 0.314
HIC1 −0.31 P = 0.142
IL-6 0.57 P = 0.043
Global   
LINE-1 0.63 P < 0.001
Alu 0.10 P < 0.001
Yang, 2012 [120] CS Anshan City, Liaoning, China 128 100 42.07 Urine Log transformed μg/L Peripheral blood lymphocytes % methylation    QC or CH NR. Unadjusted for potential confounders.
1-Hydroxypyrene Specific by methylation specific quantitative PCR
(Overall mean=6.56) p16INK4α r spearman = 0.450 <0.001
  1. AAS, atomic absorption spectrometry; BaP, benzo[a]pyrene; CH: cell heterogeneity; HPLC, high-performance liquid chromatography; HPLC-F, high-performance liquid chromatography–fluorescence; IQR, interquartile range; LOD, limit of detection; NR: not reported; QC: quality control.
  2. aSociodemographic data available in the article, not necessarily in the subsample without missing values in DNA methylation or exposures.