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Table 1 TOPS Family Study of Epigenetics (TFSE) cohort characteristics

From: An epigenetic map of age-associated autosomal loci in northern European families at high risk for the metabolic syndrome

  Children and adolescents Adults
(mean ± SD) (mean ± SD)
Overweight and obese 32% 73%
Waist over MetS threshold 15% 52%
HOMA over MetS threshold 17% 32%
Hypertriglyceride 9% 20%
HDL-C over MetS threshold 51% 66%
MetS prevalence NA 24%
Phenotype Girls (n = 21) Boys (n = 32) Female (n = 85) Male (n = 54)
  Weight, kg 56.35 ± 22.97 58.53 ± 25.15 82.98 ± 19.63 94.60 ± 23.36
  Height, cm 157.81 ± 13.09 159.69 ± 20.93 164.62 ± 6.87 177.31 ± 6.38
  BMI, kg/m2 22.10 ± 7.50 21.80 ± 5.70 30.75 ± 7.66 30.04 ± 6.76
  BMI% 55.61 ± 34.20 66.91 ± 26.16 NA NA
  Waist circumference (WC), cm 68.15 ± 14.05 75.16 ± 18.15 93.87 ± 17.89 101.58 ± 16.92
  Subcutaneous fat (SubQF), g 361.49 ± 263.70 123.31 ± 95.00 319.34 ± 191.59 255.94 ± 131.42
  Visceral fat (VF), g 78.57 ± 24.02 43.66 ± 25.27 170.84 ± 149.50 265.24 ± 94.95
  VF/SubQF 0.32 ± 0.20 0.45 ± 0.20 0.56 ± 0.32 1.13 ± 0.40
  Total abdominal fat (TAF), g 440.05 ± 287.49 166.97 ± 114.39 490.18 ± 300.40 521.18 ± 204.41
  Fasting glucose (FG), mmol/l 82.28 ± 8.44 86.47 ± 8.54 84.26 ± 13.07 86.58 ± 15.37
  Fasting insulin (FI), pmol/l 14.81 ± 5.50 13.73 ± 5.69 16.12 ± 15.67 21.07 ± 22.91
  Insulin/glucose (IGR) 0.18 ± 0.06 0.16 ± 0.07 0.44 ± 1.66 0.52 ± 1.42
  Homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) 3.03 ± 1.22 2.94 ± 1.32 3.53 ± 3.79 4.69 ± 5.15
  Triglycerides (TG), mmol/l 78.52 ± 28.11 78.00 ± 45.44 100.07 ± 52.44 117.69 ± 62.38
  Total Cholesterol (TC), mmol/l 152.76 ± 22.71 142.66 ± 25.78 193.06 ± 41.21 194.61 ± 38.77
  LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), mmol/l 89.29 ± 24.62 85.75 ± 23.15 125.91 ± 38.39 133.82 ± 36.28
  HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), mmol/l 46.95 ± 9.93 41.31 ± 9.50 46.29 ± 13.46 37.68 ± 9.93
  Systolic blood pressure (sBP), mmHg 105.50 ± 5.00 107.55 ± 10.42 127.34 ± 18.56 129.61 ± 13.97
  Diastolic blood pressure (dBP), mmHg 66.94 ± 8.30 69.45 ± 9.59 76.79 ± 10.89 81.94 ± 11.39
  Adiponectin, ng/ml 14.42 ± 5.96 10.45 ± 5.01 9.67 ± 5.52 7.95 ± 6.29
  Leptin, ng/ml 13.46 ± 11.26 6.66 ± 7.17 23.72 ± 14.15 9.85 ± 7.22