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Table 1 Overview of experimental and literature evidence for several differentially expressed genes and CpG signaling in mouse and humans

From: Restitution of gene expression and histone acetylation signatures altered by hepatitis B virus through antiviral microRNA-like molecules in nontransformed murine hepatocytes

Gene/function Changes in gene expression Changes in CpG signaling  
HBV-Met versus MMH-D3 human chronic hepatitis B human HCC HBV-Met vs. MMH-D3 human hepatitis B/HCC References
CDH13 Regulation of cell-cell contacts up (P <0.01) no Pubmed hit; upregulation observed in chronic HBV infection (n = 3) versus HBV-negative liver biopsies (n = 3), P <0.05 no Pubmed hit low 5meC high 5hmeC hyper5meC in tumor (HCC)1 1 Yu, BMC Cancer. 2002 PMID: 12433278
KDR (VEGFR2) Regulation of angiogenesis uncertain (up, P >0.05) no Pubmed hit; no significant change observed in chronic HBV infection (n = 3) versus HBV-negative liver biopsies (n = 3) up2,3,4 Na no Pubmed hit 2 Yoshiji, Hepatology. 2001 PMID: 11283848 (mouse) 3 Shimamura, J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2000 PMID: 10921418 4 Yoshiji, Hepatology. 1999 PMID: 10534339
IGFBP1 IGF regulation/proliferation uncertain (up, P >0.05) no Pubmed hit; no significant change observed in chronic HBV infection (n = 3) versus HBV-negative liver biopsies (n = 3) no Pubmed hit Na no Pubmed hit Na
IGFBP3 IGF regulation/proliferation uncertain (up, P >0.05) no Pubmed hit; no significant change observed in chronic HBV infection (n = 3) versus HBV-negative liver biopsies (n = 3) normal5 Na no Pubmed hit 5 Adamek, Oncol Rep. 2013 PMID: 23784592
CDKN2A Tumor suppressor down (P = 0.038) down7,8 down6,7,8 low 5meC moderate 5hmeC hyper5meC (hepatitis B + HCC)1,6,7,8 1 Yu, BMC Cancer. 2002 PMID: 12433278 6 Li, Clin Cancer Res. 2004 PMID: 15569978 7 Kaneto, Gut 2001 PMID: 11171828 8 Shim, Cancer Lett 2003 PMID: 12565176
WT1 Tumor suppressor down (P <0.01) down early: normal hepatocytes expressing HBx5/HBV-positive biopsies5 versus ‘significant upregulation observed in chronic HBV infection (n = 3) versus HBV-negative liver biopsies (n = 3)’ up9,10,11 Na hyper5meC (HCC)12,13 5 Wu, Oncogene. 2001 PMID: 11439330 9 Uesugi, J Gastroenterol. 2013 PMID: 23142971 10 Perugorria, Cancer Res. 2009 PMID: 19190340 11 Sera, Eur J Cancer 2008 PMID: 18255279 12 Yu, Cell Res. 2003 PMID: 14672555 13 Zhang, Clin Cancer Res. 2007 PMID: 17289889
DLC1 Tumor suppressor down (P <0.01) significant upregulation observed in chronic HBV infection down14,15,16 Na elevated 5meC (HCC)15 14 Dong, Cancer Epidemiol. 2009 PMID: 19766077 15 Wong, Cancer Res. 2003 PMID: 14633684 16 Leung-Kuen, PLoS One 2013 PMID: 23826380
  1. Abbreviations: CDH13 cadherin 13, CDKN2A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A, DLC1deleted in liver cancer 1 IGF, insulin-like growth factor, IGFBP1/3 insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1/3, KDR kinase insert domain receptor, VEGFR2 vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, WT1Wilms tumor 1.