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Table 2 Responses to treatment with valproic acid+all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)+low-dose cytarabine; a summary of the results for the two acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients achieving complete hematological remission (CR)

From: The combination of valproic acid, all-trans retinoic acid and low-dose cytarabine as disease-stabilizing treatment in acute myeloid leukemia

Patient characteristics and treatment responses Detailed description of disease characteristics and the clinical course
CR1 Risk factor: AML secondary to previous primary myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS).
Female, 83 years old Status at diagnosis: performance status 1, 35% blasts in bone marrow; pancytopenia with circulating blasts < 0.5 × 109/L.
Treatment duration: 9 months Valproic acid level: average level first 4 weeks 353 μmol/L and during the whole treatment period 326 μmol/L.
Response duration: 4 months
Survival: 296 days
Peripheral blood cell counts: (i) platelet counts >100 × 109/L for 4 months and > 30 × 109/L for 7 months; (ii) neutrophils > 1.5 × 109/L for 4 months; and (iii) no erythrocyte transfusions for 10 months and values Hb > 11 g/dl for 4 months.
CR2a Risk factors: none, de novo AML.
Male, 71 years old Status at diagnosis: performance status 3, > 20% blast in bone marrow judged from bone biopsy, pancytopenia with circulating blasts < 0.5 × 109/L.
Treatment duration: 7 months  
Response duration: 2 months Valproic acid level: average level first 4 weeks 419 μmol/L and during the whole treatment period 499 μmol/L.
Survival: 383 days Peripheral blood cell counts: (i) > 100 × 109/L for 3 months; (ii) neutrophils > 1.5 × 109/L for 2 months; (iii) Hb > 11 g/100mL for 2.5 months with transfusion independence.
  1. Patient identity refers to response (CR complete remission) according to the conventional AML criteria [17] and their consecutive number. Duration of treatment refers to the time receiving valproic acid, ATRA and low-dose cytarabine according to the protocol. The duration of responses refers to the time between the first and the last review documenting a peripheral blood cell value above the indicated level.
  2. aReceived later chemotherapy with hydroxyurea to control peripheral blood blast count.