(A) Representative confocal images of rat testis wax sections (2 μ) at 882 magnification, showing dUTP-FITC incorporation in nicked (green) and PI nuclear counterstain (red) in the DNA of elongating rat spermatids of stages IX to XII seminiferous tubules. Left panel-CON: Control. Middle panel-FD: FD-treated. Right panel-CPA: CPA-treated. N: Negative controls. a/d/g/j: stage IX seminiferous tubule. b/e/h/k: stage X seminiferous tubule. c/f/i/l: stages XI to XII seminiferous tubules. Lu: Lumen. Arrows indicate: P: Pachytene spermatocytes. L: Leptotene spermatocytes. es: elongating spermatids. (B) Flow cytometric analysis of DNA integrity in rat sperm taken from caput epididymides. Histogram showing dUTP-FITC incorporation in nicked DNA strands. C: Control samples. FD: FD-treated samples. CPA: CPA-treated samples. (*) indicates a significant difference.