Schematic diagram of the experimental design . Genomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood was used for sodium bisulfite modification. Either 10 or 50 ng of bisulfite-modified DNA was used for multiple displacement amplification (MDA)-based whole genome amplification (WGA). We performed three independent WGA experiments. In each experiment set, deionized distilled water (DDW) was included as a negative control. Note that after bisulfite modification, DNA is in a single-stranded form.